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Job search and employment success: A quantitative review and future research agenda.

Job search and employment success: A quantitative review and future research agenda.

The importance of communication among healthcare providers has been long recognized, and many healthcare organizations are implementing team-based care, with emphasis on staff communication. While previous empirical studies in various settings illustrate the role of built environments in user communication, there is a lack of quantified interpersonal spatial metrics to predict interactions. This study investigates how interpersonal spatial metrics at different scales predict staff communication patterns by empirically studying four primary care clinics that provide team-based care. We found that staff members in clinics with higher visual connections among staff members reported more timely and frequent communication. We also found that staff members talked to each other more frequently when their workstations were visually connected. The findings of this study are expected to help designers and facility managers provide well-designed team-based clinic layouts, beyond just shared work spaces for team members, for improved staff communication.

Beyond co-location: Visual connections of staff workstations and staff communication in primary care clinics.

University of Michigan

Hannah Ramil

There is conflicting evidence about the capacity for scientific collectives (e.g., research teams, centers) to seed grand innovations. Although scientific challenges often require large numbers of specialized experts to work together, many large organizational groups are susceptible to weak member motivation and poor coordination. We recently concluded a six-year programmatic investigation into this organizational conundrum. Our research considered how best to organize and support collaboration for scientific innovation. Our findings, along with extant research on collaboration and innovation in the organizational sciences, have led us to draw three conclusions for the management of team science. First, we conclude that, rather than single “teams,” many of the collective entities addressing interdisciplinary scientific challenges are more appropriately labeled scientific “Multiteam Systems” (i.e., MTSs). Therefore, referring to all scientific collectives as “scientific teams” can sometimes lead to incorrect conclusions about the best ways to support collaboration. Second, we conclude that processes of interteam leadership and boundary spanning communication, which serve to connect different component teams to one another, are essential to the overall success of scientific MTSs. However, we caution that this second conclusion does not necessarily imply that managers should attempt to create one “big team” characterized by overly integrated subgroups that have lost sight of their unique team identities and subordinate goals. Rather, our third conclusion is that managing MTS collaboration is a balancing act, which involves both the integration of efforts across teams as well as the recognition of component teams’ unique contributions, identities, and subordinate goals. In this chapter, we elaborate these three conclusions and summarize five properties of effective MTSs which are important targets for intervention strategies designed to facilitate multiteam functioning.

Best practices for researchers working in multiteam systems

Workplace emotions and motivation: Toward a unified approach

Backstage staff communication: The effects of different levels of visual exposure to patients

The changing nature of work is having a profound impact on the human experience, particularly among older workers. Two integrative theoretical and empirical frameworks of adult development over the past 3 decades provide new insights into aging and work in the 21st century. The first framework focuses on adult intellect and the second on work motivation. We provide a brief review of these frameworks, discuss the implications for reconsidering adult work lives in the context of interindividual differences, intraindividual change, and external forces, and argue for greater attention to individual differences in knowledge, skills, and motivation. Six broad themes, arising from the convergence of theory, research findings, and emerging patterns of work, are proposed as guides for forging new directions on the intellectual and motivational aspects of adult development in the world of 21st century work.

Work in the 21st century: New directions for aging and adult development

Many studies have discussed unmanned aircraft system (UAS) applications for infrastructure conditions and construction project inspections. However, the industry currently faces significant challenges that hinder the use of this technology. UAS operational procedure is disjointed with regard to the inspection decision-making process. Moreover, training those responsible for UAS operations requires a great deal of time and cost. This study documents the job responsibilities and establishes goals for UAS operators in the construction and infrastructure domains through the use of goal-directed cognitive task analysis (GCTA). GCTA has been proven essential to enhancing training efficiency by revealing necessary areas of augmentation of information requirements related to UAS operation, such as situation awareness and decision criteria. The main goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of the task responsibilities and multilevel goals for operating a UAS. The findings of this study include three key personnel identified, their task domains, goals, and decision criteria, and situation awareness (SA) requirements. In the end, this study also instigates extensive discussion of the conceptual goal-directed decision-making process to support the realization of the goals of UAS applications. This study will help to enhance training performance and align UAS operational procedures and decision-making related to inspection tasks in the construction and infrastructure project environments.