The representational function of clinic design: Staff and patient perceptions of teamwork
The representational function of clinic design: Staff and patient perceptions of teamwork
We offer a worker-centric perspective on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic for the aging workforce. We briefly describe 3 broad characteristics of pandemics—mortality salience, isolation from the workplace, and rising unemployment—in terms of their associated pathways of influence on older workers, and recommendations for future research.
For whom the pandemic tolls: A person-centric analysis of older workers
Job search and employment success: A quantitative review and future research agenda.
The importance of communication among healthcare providers has been long recognized, and many healthcare organizations are implementing team-based care, with emphasis on staff communication. While previous empirical studies in various settings illustrate the role of built environments in user communication, there is a lack of quantified interpersonal spatial metrics to predict interactions. This study investigates how interpersonal spatial metrics at different scales predict staff communication patterns by empirically studying four primary care clinics that provide team-based care. We found that staff members in clinics with higher visual connections among staff members reported more timely and frequent communication. We also found that staff members talked to each other more frequently when their workstations were visually connected. The findings of this study are expected to help designers and facility managers provide well-designed team-based clinic layouts, beyond just shared work spaces for team members, for improved staff communication.
Beyond co-location: Visual connections of staff workstations and staff communication in primary care clinics.
There is conflicting evidence about the capacity for scientific collectives (e.g., research teams, centers) to seed grand innovations. Although scientific challenges often require large numbers of specialized experts to work together, many large organizational groups are susceptible to weak member motivation and poor coordination. We recently concluded a six-year programmatic investigation into this organizational conundrum. Our research considered how best to organize and support collaboration for scientific innovation. Our findings, along with extant research on collaboration and innovation in the organizational sciences, have led us to draw three conclusions for the management of team science. First, we conclude that, rather than single “teams,” many of the collective entities addressing interdisciplinary scientific challenges are more appropriately labeled scientific “Multiteam Systems” (i.e., MTSs). Therefore, referring to all scientific collectives as “scientific teams” can sometimes lead to incorrect conclusions about the best ways to support collaboration. Second, we conclude that processes of interteam leadership and boundary spanning communication, which serve to connect different component teams to one another, are essential to the overall success of scientific MTSs. However, we caution that this second conclusion does not necessarily imply that managers should attempt to create one “big team” characterized by overly integrated subgroups that have lost sight of their unique team identities and subordinate goals. Rather, our third conclusion is that managing MTS collaboration is a balancing act, which involves both the integration of efforts across teams as well as the recognition of component teams’ unique contributions, identities, and subordinate goals. In this chapter, we elaborate these three conclusions and summarize five properties of effective MTSs which are important targets for intervention strategies designed to facilitate multiteam functioning.
Best practices for researchers working in multiteam systems
Workplace emotions and motivation: Toward a unified approach
Backstage staff communication: The effects of different levels of visual exposure to patients
The changing nature of work is having a profound impact on the human experience, particularly among older workers. Two integrative theoretical and empirical frameworks of adult development over the past 3 decades provide new insights into aging and work in the 21st century. The first framework focuses on adult intellect and the second on work motivation. We provide a brief review of these frameworks, discuss the implications for reconsidering adult work lives in the context of interindividual differences, intraindividual change, and external forces, and argue for greater attention to individual differences in knowledge, skills, and motivation. Six broad themes, arising from the convergence of theory, research findings, and emerging patterns of work, are proposed as guides for forging new directions on the intellectual and motivational aspects of adult development in the world of 21st century work.
Work in the 21st century: New directions for aging and adult development
Many studies have discussed unmanned aircraft system (UAS) applications for infrastructure conditions and construction project inspections. However, the industry currently faces significant challenges that hinder the use of this technology. UAS operational procedure is disjointed with regard to the inspection decision-making process. Moreover, training those responsible for UAS operations requires a great deal of time and cost. This study documents the job responsibilities and establishes goals for UAS operators in the construction and infrastructure domains through the use of goal-directed cognitive task analysis (GCTA). GCTA has been proven essential to enhancing training efficiency by revealing necessary areas of augmentation of information requirements related to UAS operation, such as situation awareness and decision criteria. The main goal of this study is to provide a better understanding of the task responsibilities and multilevel goals for operating a UAS. The findings of this study include three key personnel identified, their task domains, goals, and decision criteria, and situation awareness (SA) requirements. In the end, this study also instigates extensive discussion of the conceptual goal-directed decision-making process to support the realization of the goals of UAS applications. This study will help to enhance training performance and align UAS operational procedures and decision-making related to inspection tasks in the construction and infrastructure project environments.
A multi-level goal model for decision-making in UAS visual inspections in construction and infrastructure projects
The ability to foresee, anticipate, and plan for future desired outcomes is crucial for well-being, motivation, and behavior. However, theories in organizational psychology do not incorporate time-related constructs such as Future Time Perspective (FTP), and research on FTP remains disjointed and scattered, with different domains focusing on different aspects of the construct, using different measures, and assessing different antecedents and consequences. In this review and meta-analysis, we aim to clarify the FTP construct, advance its theoretical development, and demonstrate its importance by (a) integrating theory and empirical findings across different domains of research to identify major outcomes and antecedents of FTP, and (b) empirically examining whether and how these variables are moderated by FTP measures and dimensions. Results of a meta-analysis of k = 212 studies reveal significant relationships between FTP and major classes of consequences (i.e., those related to achievement, well-being, health behavior, risk behavior, and retirement planning), and between antecedents and FTP, as well as moderating effects of different FTP measures and dimensions. Highlighting the importance of FTP for organizational psychology theories, our findings demonstrate that FTP predicts these outcomes over and above the big five personality traits and mediates the associations between these personality traits and outcomes.
Future time perspective: A systematic review and meta-analysis
The current study integrates ideas from the successful aging at work paradigm with theory and research on retirement motivation with a sample of midlife workers (N = 397; Mage = 52.34; SD = 5.87) over a 16 month period. We conceptualized successful motivational aging at work as a typology of successful, usual, and unsuccessful motivational aging at work and provide empirical support for the validity of this typology. Motivation to work was defined as retirement age and post-retirement work intentions. We found that promotion-focused trait orientation and person–job fit were predictive of successful aging classification and that work centrality and retirement-related attitudes were related to motivation to work outcomes. Successful aging at work classification, however, did not predict motivation to work outcomes, operationalized as intended retirement age and post-retirement work intentions. Our findings provide support for the dynamic process of motivational aging at work and provide evidence that trait and contextual variables can predict this process. Furthermore, we show that retirement decisions are complex and influenced by an array of work and nonwork attitudes.
Successful motivational aging at work: Antecedents and retirement-related outcomes
Population aging across the globe has focused increasing attention on work motivation and employment goals among older adults. This chapter examines the psychological foundations of work motivation and lifespan theories of motivation as they affect older adults. Measurement issues, motives, and the psychological mechanisms by which older adults address age-related changes in competencies and life circumstances are reviewed, and a distinction is made between determinants of motivation at work (job engagement) and motivational factors and processes that contribute to employment decision-making (to continue to work, to retire, to seek post-retirement work). Organizational strategies to enhance motivation at work and future research directions are discussed.
Work motivation and employment goals in later adulthood
Work has long been recognized as an integral feature of human life. Formost people, identities and aspirations related to employment begin early inlife and are continuously shaped by community, family, schooling, health,job opportunities, and economic realities. In early adulthood, people typicallyfocus on learning new competencies, choosing an occupation, and managingthe school-to-work transition. During midlife, goals and concerns often shiftto improving the work experience, career development, and managing peri-ods of unemployment.
Lifespan perspectives on work motivation
The chapters in this volume reflect one of the most consequential issues of the day—namely, how advances in technology and automation will affect the nature of working and employment in the 21st century. Obviously, this is an ongoing process and there is no definitive answer, but there is growing agreement among scholars and practitioners that recent advances in technology and automation herald the early stage of another “revolution” with respect to the organization, execution, and human experience of work.
Prospects and pitfalls in building the future workforce
This chapter integrates existing theoretical and empirical work, and proposes a model of lifespan changes in individuals’ work lives, their motivational challenges, and how individuals can master these challenges. In the first edition of the Handbook of Competence and Motivation, the chapter “Competence and Motivation in Adulthood and Old Age” addressed competence development and motivation during adulthood generally, and applied the motivational theory of lifespan development to conceptualize the motivational challenges and adaptive responses to age-related changes in competence (Heckhausen, 2005). This new chapter has a similar agenda but focuses more closely on what this means for competence development and motivation in the work domain. Throughout the chapter we pay greater attention to the challenges people encounter at different ages and stages of their careers, and how they master these challenges, than to trait-based individual differences in motivational processes involved in work (e.g., interests in work area, implicit achievement motive; for trait-based research, see Kanfer & Ackerman, 2005).
Competence and motivation at work throughout adulthood. Making the most of changing capacities and opportunities.
Work motivation is a topic of crucial importance to the success of organizations and societies and the well-being of individuals. We organize the work motivation literature over the last century using a meta-framework that clusters theories, findings, and advances in the field according to their primary focus on (a) motives, traits, and motivation orientations (content); (b) features of the job, work role, and broader environment (context); or (c) the mechanisms and processes involved in choice and striving (process). Our integrative review reveals major achievements in the field, including more precise mapping of the psychological inputs and operations involved in motivation and broadened conceptions of the work environment. Cross-cutting trends over the last century include the primacy of goals, the importance of goal striving processes, and a more nuanced conceptualization of work motivation as a dynamic, goal-directed, resource allocation process that unfolds over the related variables of time, experience, and place. Across the field, advances in methodology and measurement have improved the match between theory and research. Ten promising directions for future research are described and field experiments are suggested as a useful means of bridging the research–practice gap.
Motivation Related to Work: A Century of Progress
In this article we selectively review major advances in research on motivation in work and organizational behavior since the founding of Organizational Behavior and Human Performance (now Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes) 50 years ago. Using a goal-based organizing rubric, we highlight the most impactful articles and summarize research progress over time related to understanding the why, where, how, what, and when of motivation during goal choice and goal enactment. We also note macro-level trends in motivation research published in this journal, including the shift away from publishing new, core theories of work motivation in favor of using new approaches published elsewhere to examine key micro-regulatory processes involved in goal decisions and goal pursuit. We conclude with discussion of promising future research directions.
Motivation in organizational behavior: History, advances, and prospects
Despite widespread popular concern about what it means to be over 40 and unemployed, little attention has been paid in the literature to clarifying the role of age within the job seeking experience. Extending theory, we propose mechanisms by which chronological age affects job search and reemployment outcomes after job loss. Through a meta-analysis and examination of 2 supplemental datasets, we examine 5 questions: (a) How strong is the relationship between age and reemployment speed? (b) Does age disadvantage individuals with respect to other reemployment outcomes? (c) Is the relationship between age and reemployment outcomes mediated by job search activities? (d) Are these relationships generalizable? and (e) Are these relationships linear or curvilinear? Our findings provide evidence for a negative relationship between age and reemployment status and speed across job search decade, world region, and unemployment rate, with the strength of the negative relationship becoming stronger over age 50. Job search self-efficacy and job search intensity partially mediate the relationship between age and both reemployment status and speed.
Age and reemployment success after job loss: An integrative model and meta-analysis
This chapter reviews social-cognitive and self-regulatory perspectives on involuntary job loss and subsequent job search. We begin by organizing different social-cognitive and self-regulatory perspectives along the temporal continuum of job loss and job search, and discuss the experience of job loss and its impact on the individual during subsequent job search. Using a motivational/self-regulatory frame, we then review findings related to goal generation and goal striving and outline important considerations for research design, including temporal, social, and measurement issues. Finally, we highlight the successes that have been made in the field thus far, and provide suggestions for promising future research avenues.
Job loss and job search: A social-cognitive and self-regulatory perspective
Work motivation: From processes to purpose
Demographic trends, macroeconomic conditions, and changes in the nature of work have spurred interest in the older worker. Increasing population longevity and reduced birth rates have led policymakers to delay or eliminate fixed-age mandatory retirement as a means of stabilizing workforce size. At the same time, organizations concerned with talent shortages and organizational knowledge transfer have explored the use of exit strategies that extend the employee retirement process over time (e.g., bridge retirement). In theory, such trends are expected to provide support for sustained employability and a longer working life, and there is growing evidence that older individuals are increasingly delaying retirement or reentering the workforce. In practice, however, it is unclear how labor policy changes and organizational practices affect the worker transition process, sustain employability, and promote worker well-being following labor force exit. Although organizations may offer bridge employment options, human resource management practices are often slow to change (see de Lange, Kooij, & van der Heijden, this volume), leading to older worker feelings of disenfranchisement and work dissatisfaction. Organizations have often taken a reactive rather than proactive approach to the development of programs and practices that promote sustained employability (such as older worker socialization, training, and development), mitigate disruptive intergenerational conflict in increasingly age-diverse work teams, and support the hire of qualified older workers. Taken together, these local work experiences may encourage older worker exit from the job and/or the workforce despite broader organizational goals to attract, train, and retain such workers. In summary, while there is wide consensus on the desirability of a longer high-quality working life for many people in developed countries, the development of effective, coordinated strategies for accomplishing such a goal remains largely elusive. This volume seeks to address this issue from a person-centric perspective, namely by examining the impact of work on older worker experiences, goals, attitudes, and behaviors.
Employment Transitions in Late Adulthood
Work motivation refers to the psychological processes and strategies that govern the direction, intensity, and persistence of discretionary actions in the workplace or related to work. This article summarizes key tenets in work motivation theory and practice, historical trends in work motivation research, and modern approaches to work motivation that emphasize the importance of an employee’s work goals and the self‐regulatory processes by which employees strive to accomplish his/her objectives. It also reviews research findings on the differential influence of universal motives (e.g., justice and task enjoyment), individual differences (e.g., achievement motivation and intrinsic rewards), and contextual factors (e.g., task demands and the social environment) on goal setting and self‐regulation in the context of work. Future directions in work motivation research and practice that view employee motivation as a resource are described.
The goal of this volume is setting an agenda for industrial-organizational (I-O) research to address the coming age-related changes to the workforce. Specifically, our primary goal is not to review past research on age at work, but rather to identify what research we should be doing to address age in the workplace. In this chapter, we set the stage for this book, describing the demographic, economic, societal, and technological changes most relevant to the aging workforce; age-related changes that can affect the workplace; and how a use-inspired approach to I-O research can address these issues.
An introduction to facing the challenges of a multi-age workforce
One of the most robust findings in all of industrial-organizational (I-O) psychology is that, when enacted properly, goal setting improves performance. This simple idea is supported by decades of theory and thousands of empirical articles covering diverse work settings, cultures, and outcomes (Locke & Latham, 2002). Despite the validity of this general claim, however, few studies have examined the effects of goal setting in underdeveloped societies. Further, the effects of team-based goals are less well understood than the effects of goals on individuals (DeMatteo, Eby, & Sundstrom, 1998). The present chapter represents the intersection of these ideas by describing how a team-based goals and incentives (TBGI) program was used in remote areas of the Indian state of Bihar to improve the motivation and performance of three types of Frontline Healthcare Workers (FLWs) as they worked to reduce child mortality rates (MDG4) and imporve maternal health (MDG5)
Improving motivation and performance among Frontline Healthcare Workers
Costanza and Finkelstein (2015) are correct to highlight the dangers of using generationally based stereotypes in organizations. Although popular, these stereotypes are related to a stigmatization based on group membership that can be pernicious and discriminatory. Costanza and Finkelstein are also correct in their assessment of the state of the literature on generational effects: theory and research is woefully lacking. Indeed, a recent review of research on generations at work characterized this research as descriptive and neither theoretical nor empirical (Lyons & Kuron, 2014). Yet, as pointed out by Costanza and Finkelstein, the idea of a generational identity is salient and even appealing to many people. Why would this be if it were completely devoid of psychological import? People seem to resonate with the idea that, to some extent at least, they are a product of their generation.
Generations at work: Don’t throw the baby out with the bathwater
This book is the first to bring together recent findings in one place and present a solid industrial/organizational research perspective on this complex area of inquiry. Emotions in the Workplace offers a concise, scholarly introduction to new developments and an overview of how basic theory and research in affect and emotions has influenced the science and practice of industrial/organizational psychology. It examines emotional regulation in organizations on a number of different levels, integrating research on individual, dyadic, group, and organizational-level phenomena. In one convenient volume, the book addresses a wide range of key topics, including aggression at work, emotional labor, the work-family interface, and more.
Emotions in the Workplace
Diverse developments in ability and motivation research, and in the derivations of new methodological techniques have often run on parallel courses. The editors of this volume felt that communication across domains could be vastly improved through intensive interaction between researchers. This interaction was realized in The Minnesota Symposium on Learning and Individual Differences, which directly addressed ability, motivation and methodology concerns. This book, compiled as a result of the Symposium, unites theoretical and empirical advances in learning and individual differences.
Abilities Motivation and Methodology
Work Motivation proposes that motivation must be seen as a multi-level phenomenon where individual, group,organizational and cultural variables must be considered to truly understand it. The book adopts an overall framework that encompasses “internal” – from the person – forces and “external” – from the immediate and more distant environment – forces. It is destined to challenge scholars of organizations to give renewed emphasis and attention to advancing our understanding of motivation in work situations.
Facing the Challenges of a Multi-Age Workforce examines the shifting economic, cultural, and technological trends in the modern workplace that are taking place as a result of the aging global workforce. Taking an international perspective, contributors address workforce aging issues around the world, allowing for productive cross-cultural comparisons. Chapters adopt a use-inspired approach, with contributors proposing solutions to real problems faced by organizations, including global teamwork, unemployed youth, job obsolescence and over-qualification, heavy emotional labor and physically demanding jobs, and cross-age perceptions and communication. Additional commentaries from sociologists, gerontologists, economists, and scholars of labor and government round out the volume and demonstrate the interdisciplinary nature of this important topic.
Facing the Challenges of a Multi-Age Workforce: A Use-Inspired Approach
In the near future, workforces will increasingly consist of older workers. At the same time, research has demonstrated that work-related growth motives decrease with age. Although this finding is consistent with life span theories, such as the selection optimization and compensation (SOC) model, we know relatively little about the process variables that bring about this change in work motivation. Therefore, we use a 4-wave study design to examine the mediating role of future time perspective and promotion focus in the negative association between age and work-related growth motives. Consistent with the SOC model, we found that future time perspective was negatively associated with age, which, in turn, was associated with lower promotion focus, lower work-related growth motive strength, and lower motivation to continue working. These findings have important theoretical implications for the literature on aging and work motivation, and practical implications for how to motivate older workers.
Future time perspective and promotion focus as determinants of intraindividual change in work motivation
Research on how to manage and retain older workers is expanding. In this literature, older workers are often viewed as passive recipients or products of their work environment. However, findings in the lifespan literature indicate that people are not passive responders to the aging process, but rather frequently exercise agency in dealing with the biological, psychological, and social changes that occur across the lifespan. In addition, multiple studies demonstrated that employees also exercise agency at work and behave proactively. Job crafting is a specific form of proactive work behavior defined as the self-initiated changes individuals make in the task or relational boundaries of their work. Since job crafting is aimed at improving or restoring person-job fit, it offers older workers a means to continuously adjust their job to intrapersonal changes that are part of the aging process, thereby increasing their ability and motivation to continue working. In this chapter, we apply the concept of job crafting to older worker adjustment. Building upon lifespan theories and the literature on aging at work, we explain why job crafting is important for successful aging at work and we propose specific activities and forms of job crafting relevant for older workers.
Successful Aging at Work: The Role of Job Crafting
Background/Context: The past few decades have seen an explosive growth in high-school student participation in the Advanced Placement program® (AP), with nearly two million exams completed in 2011. Traditionally, universities have considered AP enrollment as an indicator for predicting academic success during the admission process. However, AP exam performance may be predictive of future academic success; a related factor in gender differences in major selection and success; and instrumental in predicting STEM persistence.
Purpose: This study focused on determining the influence of patterns of AP exam completion and performance on indicators of post-secondary academic achievement. These patterns were examined in the context of gender differences and for the prediction of grades, STEM persistence and graduation rates. Subjects: The sample consisted of 26,693 students who entered the Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) as first-year undergraduate students during the period of 1999-2009.
Research Design: Archival admissions records and college transcripts were obtained for entering first-year (non-transfer) students, to examine patterns of AP exams completed and performance on the exams, as they related to indicators of college academic performance, TCR, 115, 100305 Advanced Placement and College Performance 2 BACKGROUND The Advanced Placement program has been in existence since the 1950s (DiYanni, 2009), but the program has markedly changed over time, especially in the past decade. Although the original goals of the program (to allow students to obtain college-level credit for advanced study during high school) have not changed, the program has expanded in scope, from an initial set of 10 exams in core areas of study (e.g., “English composition, literature, Latin, French, German, Spanish, mathematics, biology, chemistry, and physics” [DiYanni, 2009]) to 33 exams that span the original areas, but also other diverse domains such as Art History, Environmental Science, Human Geography, and Macroeconomics. In addition, there has been an explosive growth in the number of AP exams administered, from about 10,000 in 1960 to a half-million exams in 1990, inflow and outflow STEM majors and non-STEM majors, and attrition/time-to-degree criteria. For predicting college performance, patterns of AP exams were examined in isolation, exams grouped by domain, and instances of multiple examinations completed (e.g., three or more AP exams in the STEM area). These patterns of AP exams were evaluated for predictive validity in conjunction with traditional predictors of post-secondary performance (e.g., high-school GPA and SAT scores). College course enrollment patterns were also examined, in conjunction with AP exam patterns, to determine the associations between AP exam performance and course-taking patterns in post-secondary study.
Data Collection and Analysis: Admissions records were obtained from Georgia Tech, including high-school grade point average information, along with college transcripts, including initial and final major declaration, attrition, and graduation data. Course enrollments were classified by level and by domain. Advanced Placement exam and SAT records were obtained from the College Board, and matched to the Georgia Tech records.
Conclusions/Recommendations: Although student completion of AP exams was positively related to post-secondary grades and graduation rates, this overall pattern masks the relation between AP exam performance and post-secondary success. Students who did not receive credit tended to perform at a level similar to those students who did not complete any AP exams. Increasing numbers of AP-based course credits were associated with higher GPAs at Georgia Tech for the first year and beyond. Students with greater numbers of AP-based course credits tended to complete fewer lower-level courses and a greater number of higher-level courses. Such students graduated at a substantially higher rate and in fewer semesters of study. Average AP exam score was the single best predictor of academic success after high school GPA (HSGPA). The most important predictors of STEM major persistence were receiving credit for AP Calculus and if the student had successfully completed three or more AP exams in the STEM areas. Men had substantially higher rates of these AP exam patterns, compared to women. Given that slightly over half of the AP exams are now completed by high school students prior to their senior year, it is recommended that admissions committees consider use of actual AP exam performance data, in addition to, or instead of AP enrollment data as indicators for predicting post-secondary academic performance.
High School Advanced Placement and Student Performance in College: STEM Majors, Non-STEM Majors, and Gender Differences
A field study was conducted to examine attitudinal and behavioral variables associated with reemployment following job termination. Thirty-five employees were surveyed within two days following termination. Of those surveyed, 23 were contacted one month later regarding employment status. Analyses revealed that reemployed persons were significantly more confident of job search skills and had engaged in a greater number of search behaviors than had individuals who had remained unemployed. No significant differences between the reemployed and still unemployed groups were obtained in affective responses to termination or nonwork-related variables. The findings suggest that reemployment success is related to individual differences in expectations of successful job search. Implications for future research on job loss and reemployment are discussed.
Individual differences in successful job searches following lay-off
The present investigation examined the effects of different types of participation (choice) and role models in goal setting on goal acceptance, goal satisfaction, and performance. It was hypothesized that choice in setting a goal and a strategy to achieve the goal would positively benefit goal acceptance, performance, and goal satisfaction. In addition, it was predicted that a role model would differentially influence an individual’s goal acceptance, goal satisfaction, and performance. One hundred twenty male college students working on a class scheduling task were exposed to either a high- or low-performing role model and given various amounts of choice in the goal-setting process. The results of two-way analyses of variance demonstrated that goal acceptance, goal satisfaction, and performance were highest for individuals given choice over their goal and their strategy to achieve the goal. In addition, the results demonstrated that an individual exposed to a high-performing role model outperformed and had higher goal acceptance and satisfaction than an individual exposed to a low-performing model. The results are discussed as a means for clarifying the effects of different types of choice in the goal-setting process and the importance of role-provided information in influencing an individual’s performance.
The influence of component participation and role models on goal acceptance, goal satisfaction, and performance
A method for investigating measurement equivalence across subpopulations is developed and applied to an instrument frequently used to assess job satisfaction (the Job Descriptive Index; JDI). The method is based on Jöreskog’s simultaneous factor analysis in several populations. Several adaptations are necessary to overcome problems with violations of assumptions that occur with rating scale data. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the measurement equivalence of the JDI across different subpopulations. Investigation of five relatively homogeneous subpopulations within one industry revealed invariant measurement properties for the JDI. In the second study, measurement equivalence of the JDI was examined across health care, retailing, and military samples. Generally small violations of measurement equivalence were found. The results in both studies indicate that mean differences in JDI scores (i.e., differences in job satisfaction across groups) are due to group differences rather than lack of measurement equivalence.
Equivalence of psychological measurement in heterogeneous populations
A laboratory study was conducted to examine the role of two components of participatory work evaluation procedures on fairness attitudes and work performance. “Opportunity for influential opinion expression” and “knowledge of evaluation criteria” were manipulated in a business simulation exercise. Thirty-eight male and 49 female undergraduates worked under a task evaluation procedure that either did or did not allow them to express their opinions to the evaluator. In addition, subjects either were or were not provided with specific information about the criteria to be used in making the performance evaluation, and they received either a favorable or an unfavorable outcome. Questionnaire responses indicated that influential opinion expression enhanced perceptions of procedural and distributive fairness independently of the outcome of the evaluation. Both knowledge of evaluation criteria and perceptions of evaluation fairness correlated with subsequent task performance. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the influence of procedural justice on attitudes and task behavior in organizational settings.
Fairness and participation in evaluation procedures: Effects on task attitudes and performance
The present paper identifies and discusses contemporary problems in the self-regulation, expectancy-value, and goal-setting conceptualizations of task-specific motivation. Three issues are examined in detail: (1) the construct validity of performance measures as a criterion of motivation on cognitive tasks; (2) the influence of objective task characteristics on both the measurement of motivation and the motivation process itself; and (3) the measurement, meaning, and function of the perceived effort-performance relation and probabilistic measures of performance expectations. Within each issue, theoretical advances in information processing and decision making are integrated with previous empirical findings pertaining to performance motivation. Examination of these issues suggests that further emphasis be placed on form analyses of three cognitive mechanisms and on validating a conceptual framework concerning the influence of situational and individual-difference factors on specific cognitive components. A heuristic model, extending previous conceptualizations on the basis of new knowledge in the cognitive domain, is presented as a guide for further integrative research on task-specific motivation.
Task-specific motivation: An integrative approach to issues of measurement, mechanisms, processes, and determinants
A field study was conducted to investigate differences between hourly assembly operators who stayed and hourly assembly operators who voluntarily quit their jobs. A total of 80 stayers and 121 leavers were identified from personnel records and were classified into one of three job tenure groups, 2-5 months, 6-12 months, and more than 12 months. Job performance, attendance measures, and biographical variables were used to predict turnover for each job tenure group. Results indicated poorer performance by leavers with 6-12 months tenure compared with stayers. No differences in performance or attendance were obtained between stayers and leavers with between 2-5 months and those with more than 12-months job tenure. Leavers after 6 and before 12 months demonstrated more absenteeism compared with stayers. Implications for the role of absenteeism and constraints on the performance-retention relation are discussed.
Investigating behavioral antecedents of turnover at three job tenure levels
This study examined the role of personal standards, self-efficacy expectations, and social comparison in depression. Nondepressed and dysphoric subjects estimated their own interpersonal standards and efficacy, as well as the standards and efficacy of their peers. Contrary to common theory, dysphoric subjects set lower – not higher – goals than did nondepressed subjects. As expected, nondepressed subjects made more favorable social comparisons than did dysphoric subjects. Nondepressed subjects made more positive judgments for themselves than for their peers, whereas dysphoric subjects made similar judgments for self and other. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for the role of goals and social comparison processes in depression. In particular, it is suggested that, in response to a gap between standards and performance expectations, one might raise expectations, lower standards, or maintain both standards and expectations. The latter two are likely to be associated with depression. Not only are evaluations made in absolute terms, but they are also made by social comparison, especially when evaluation concerns one’s goals. This study suggests that dysphoric people no longer judge that they are superior to their peers, which might hinder them in mobilizing their efforts.
Dysphoric deficits in interpersonal standards, self-efficacy, and social comparison
In a variety of settings, procedures that permit predecision input by those affected by the decision in question have been found to have positive effects on fairness judgments, independent of the favorability of the decision. Two major models of the psychology of procedural justice make contrary predictions about whether repeated negative outcomes attenuate such input effects. If such attenuation occurs, it would lessen the applicability of procedural justice findings to some real-world settings, such as organizations, where procedures often provide repeated negative outcomes. The present laboratory investigation examined the procedural and distributive fairness justments produced by high- and low-input performance evaluation procedures under conditions of repeated negative outcomes. Thirty-five three-person groups of male undergraduates participated in a three-round competition. Groups either were or were not allowed to specify the relative weights to be given to two criteria used in evaluating their performance. All groups received negative outcomes on each of the three rounds. A second experimental factor varied whether or not the group learned after losing the second round that it could not possibly win the third and final round of the competition. Measures of procedural and distributive fairness showed that the high-input procedure led to judgments of greater procedural and distributive fairness across all three rounds. The input-based enhancement of fairness occurred regardless of whether reward was possible. The implications of these findings for theories of procedural justice and for applications of procedural justice to organizational settings are discussed.
Procedural fairness and work group responses to performance evaluation systems
Two central constructs of applied psychology, motivation and cognitive ability, were integrated within an information-processing framework. This theoretical framework simultaneously considers individual differences in cognitive abilities, self-regulatory processes of motivation, and information-processing demands. Evidence for the framework is provided in the context of skill acquisition, in which information-processing and ability demands change as a f function of practice, training paradigm, and timing of goal setting. Three field-based lab experiments were conducted with 1,010 U.S. Air Forces trainees. In Experiment 1 the basic ability-performance parameters of the air traffic controller task and goal-setting effects early in practice were evaluated. In Experiment 2 goal setting later in practice was examined. In Experiment 3 the simultaneous effects of training content, goal setting, and ability-performance interactions were investigated. Results support the theoretical framework and have implications for notions of ability-motivation interactions and design of training and motivation programs.
Motivation and cognitive abilities: An integrative/aptitude-treatment interaction approach to skill acquisition
>One hundred seventy-nine undergraduate Ss took part in a study of the effects of instrumental and noninstrumental participation on distributive and procedural fairness judgments. In a goal-setting procedure, Ss were allowed voice before the goal was set, after the goal was set, or not at all. Ss received information relevant to the task, irrelevant information, or no information. Both pre- and postdecision voice led to higher fairness judgments than non voice, with predecision voice leading to higher fairness judgments than postdecision voice. Relevant information also increased perceived fairness. Mediation analyses showed that perceptions of control account for some, but not all, of the voice-based enhancement of procedural justice. The results show that both instrumental and noninstrumental concerns are involved in voice effects.
Voice, control, and procedural justice: Instrumental and noninstrumental concerns in fairness judgments
Cognitively-based motivational processes are examined from achievement and goal setting perspective to provide a common basis for: (1) resolution of discontinuities in the empirical literature; (2) analysis of the role of motivational dispositions; and (3) consideration of motivation-cognitive processing interactions during complex skill acquisition. Goal orientation and goal attributes are examined with respect to their detrimental and beneficial influence on performance through effects on goal choice and self-regulatory activities. Theoretically-related differential approaches to motivational processing are found to differ in their utility for understanding motivation among children and adults. The effects of motivational processing on cognitive processes during complex skill acquisition are considered for the purpose of identifying when, how, and for whom specific motivational interventions might be most effective.
Motivation and Individual Differences in Learning: An Integration of Developmental, Differential, and Cognitive Perspectives
The relationship between personality characteristics, daily stressors, and means of coping were studied in a 12-person Soviet-American expedition team consisting of Caucasian and Eskimo men and women. The members scored relatively high on scales measuring well-being, achievement orientation, and traditionalism and scored relatively low on stress reactivity. The use of social support as a coping mechanism was positively related to high stress reactivity, control, and negative emotionality and negatively related to well-being. Negative emotionality was related to ratings of daily intrapersonal stressors. Discussion centered on the function of social support in an extreme, task-focused situation and the relationship of social support coping in this particular type of situation to maladaptive personality characteristics.
Interrelationships of personality, coping, and group processes in a Soviet-American expedition team
The current study was conducted to examine the effects of task complexity and task practice (trials) on the goal-performance relationship. Specific, difficult goal assignments were predicted to enhance performance on complex task only in later task practice. On a simpler task, specific, difficult goal assignments were predicted to enhance performance in early task practice and to disrupt performance in later task practice. The results indicated that goals exerted the predicted effects in the simple task version but had no effect in the complex task version. Possible relationships between amount of task practice and stages of skill acquisition are discussed for tasks differing in complexity. The results are also discussed in terms of cognitive resource demands and self-regulatory processes. Implications for the effectiveness of goals in relation to task complexity and task trials are also discussed.
Goal-performance relations: The effects of initial task complexity and task practice
An example of combining laboratory-and field-based study to develop a selection battery for field implementation s described. The procedure provides advantages in comparison with sole use of construct validity data, and fewer field demands for cross-validation. Two experiments were conducted that converge on development of a test battery for selection of air traffic controllers (ATCs). The laboratory study (N=112) used an ATC simulator (terminal radar approach control, or TRACON) for initial development and evaluation of the selection battery. The field study of 206 Federal Aviation Administration ATC trainees provided cross-validation data as a precursor to implementation of the battery. Implications for developing ability-based and self efficacy-based selection measures for complex job performance are discussed, as are general issues for new election research and application.
Integrating laboratory and field study for improving selection: Development of a battery for predicting air traffic controller success
A 12-person Soviet-American Bering Bridge expedition team was studied over the 61 days of their trek by dogsled and cross-country ski from the Chukotka region of Siberia, across the Bering Straits, to Alaska. The group was instructed to complete a daily effectiveness measure each evening that assessed the perception of the emotional climate of the group and relationships to task effectiveness. Members participated in a structured interview at the end of the expedition. Perceived fairness of daily task assignments was negatively related to number of disagreements and how friendly other team members were. The planned stops in villages along the way to promote international harmony enhanced the international objectives of the expedition but had a negative impact on group cohesiveness. The ability of the group to meet its objectives despite frequent episodes promoting a negative emotional climate was discussed.
Group processes and task effectiveness in a Soviet-American expedition team
Hypotheses regarding the influence of goal assignments on performance of a novel, complex task under varying conditions of practice were derived from a cognitive resource allocation model. Goals and type of practice interacted in their effects on two key performance measures. In the massed-practice conditions, trainees assigned specific, difficult goals tended to perform poorer than trainees in the control (do your best goal) condition. In the spaced-practice conditions, goal trainees performed marginally better than control trainees. Self-report measures of goal commitment, and on-task, off-task, and affective thoughts during breaks and task performance provide additional evidence for the independent and interactive effects of goals and practice conditions on motivation and performance. Results provide further support for the resource allocation framework. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Goal Setting, Conditions of practice, and task performance: A resource allocation perspective
Integration of multiple perspectives on the determinants of individual differences in skill acquisition is provided by examination of a wide array of predictors: ability (spatial, verbal, mathematical, and perceptual speed), personality (neuroticism, extroversion, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness), vocational interests (realistic and investigative), self-estimates of ability, self-concept, motivational skills, and task-specific self-efficacy. Ninety-three trainees were studied over the course of 15 hr (across 2 weeks) of skill acquisition practice on a complex, air traffic controller simulation task (Terminal Radar Approach Controller; TRACON; Wesson International; Austin, TX). Across task practice, measures of self-efficacy, and negative and positive motivational thought occurrence were collected to examine prediction of later performance and communality with pretask measures. Results demonstrate independent and interactive influences of ability tests and self-report measures in predicting training task performance. Implications for the selection process are discusses in terms of communalities observed in the predictor space.
Cognitive and noncognitive determinants and consequences of complex skill acquisition
An individual-differences approach to social competence is presented. People generated a large number of operational indicators of social competence. The dimensions that underlie those indicators were then determined. Seven interpretable dimensions of social competence were identified, each with a distinct pattern of correlations with personality and cognitive ability variables. Major personality dimensions are closely related to social competence, whereas cognitive ability (as operationalized by academic performance indicators) is less related to social competence. A profile approach to social competence is proposed because (a) social competence is a compound trait, all of whose dimensions do not covary, and (b) some social competence dimensions may be curvilinear such that, after an ideal point has been reached, higher standing on the dimension may hinder rather than enhance socially competent performance.
To "act wisely in human relations:" Exploring the dimensions of social competence. Personality and Individual Differences
This article has 2 goals: first, to present and test a hierarchical representation of personality that jointly incorporates both situational and personality (e.g., Big Five) factors into a trait conception, and second, to explicate the dimensions along which situations differ in their effect on responses, providing the conceptual and empirical groundwork for the development of a joint taxonomy of traits and situations. A study of the effects of situational differences on trait self-reports indicated that conscientiousness and agreeableness can be represented hierarchically, with lower levels jointly constrained by both personality content and situational breadth. This representation establishes a methodological framework allowing for the explanation of the ways that situations interact with personality to affect responses. Implications of this representation for personality theory and prediction to and from personality inventories are discussed.
Towards an interactionist taxonomy of personality and situations: An integrative situational-dispositional representation of personality traits
We report a series of investigations that focus on the nature of motivational skills and self-regulation for learning as traits, in contrast to consideration of self-regulation as resulting from particular interventions. In this context, we consider how self-report measures of motivational and self-regulation skills relate to other traits, such as ability, personality, interests, academic self-concept, self-ratings of abilities. In addition, we discuss how such trait measures are associated with task-specific self efficacy across tasks of varying complexity-from simple and information processing to complex air traffic controller tasks. Self-regulatory and motivational skills show substantial overlap with other trait measures, as do measures of learning strategies. Motivational and domain-specific self-concepts, along with trait anxiety, appear to be strongly related to task-specific self-efficacy.
Motivational skills & self-regulation for learning: A trait perspective
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job -search intensity among unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study’s duration.
Unemployed individuals: Motives, job-search competencies, and job-search constraints as predictors of job seeking and reemployment.
This study examined predictors and outcomes of networking intensity (i.e., individual actions directed toward contacting friends, acquaintances, and referrals to get information, leads, or advice on getting a job) during the job searches of a sample of unemployed individuals. The study used a Big Five framework, in which extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with both higher levels of networking intensity and higher use of other traditional job-search methods. Networking comfort (a procedure-specific constellation of evaluative beliefs depicting attitudes toward using networking as a job-search method) was positively related to networking intensity above and beyond the effects of personality. Networking intensity did not provide incremental prediction of unemployment insurance exhaustion., reemployment or reemployment speed, or job satisfaction when intensity of use of other job-search methods was considered.
Predictors and outcomes of networking intensity among unemployed job seeker
Empirical evidence on the conceptual and construct validity of the motivational trait taxonomy proposed by Kanfer and Heggestad is presented. 228 adults completed a shortened form of the Motivational Trait Questionnaire (MTQ), along with a battery of personality and ability measures. Relationships of the MTQ with personality measures show evidence of convergent and discriminant validity for trait constructs of Personal Mastery, Competitive Excellence, and Motivation Related to Anxiety. In addition, MTQ scale scores were generally unrelated to composite measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Examination of age differences showed a pattern of developmental decline in the achievement trait complex, but not the anxiety complex.
Individual differences in work motivation: Further explorations of a trait framework
The development and initial evaluation of a measure of motivational traits, the Motivational Trait Questionnaire (MTQ), is described. Based upon theorizing by Kanfer and Heggestad (1997), development of the MTQ began by identifying and defining five motivational traits. Item pools were generated for each of the proposed traits, and initial facets were developed through a content-sorting procedure. Two studies were conducted to evaluate the MTQ at the item, facet, and scale levels. In Study 1, the facet scales were refined based on item-level. The factor structure of the MTQ facets was similar to that found in Study 1. An extension analysis from the three trait factors to extant measures of achievement, test and trait anxiety, and personality provided construct validity evidence for the MTQ scales. Results from these studies support the multidimensional structure of motivational traits proposed by Kanfer and Heggestad.
Individual differences in trait motivation: Development of the Motivational Trait Questionnaire (MTQ)
A motivational, self-regulatory conceptualization of job search was used to organize and investigate the relationships between personality, expectancies, self, social, motive, and biographical variables and individual differences in job search behavior and employment outcomes. Meta-analytic results indicated that all antecedent variables, except optimism, were significantly related to job search behavior, with estimated population correlations ranging from -.15 to .46. As expected, job search behavior was significantly and positively related to employment success, although the size of the relationships was consistently smaller than those obtained for job search. Moderator analyses showed significant differences in the size of variable relationships for type of job search measure (effort vs. intensity) and sample type (job loser vs. employed job seeker vs. new entrant).
Job search and employment: A personality-motivational analysis and meta-analytic review
The authors investigated the abilities, self-concept, personality, interest, motivational traits, and other determinants of knowledge across physical sciences/technology, biology/psychology, humanities, and civics domains. Tests and self-report measures were administered to 320 university freshmen. Crystallized intelligence was a better predictor than was fluid intelligence for most knowledge domains. Gender differences favoring men were found for most knowledge domains. Accounting for intelligence reduced the gender influence in predicting knowledge differences. Inclusion of nonability predictors further reduced the variance accounted for by gender. Analysis of Advanced Placement test scores largely supported the results of the knowledge tests. Results are consistent with theoretical predictions that development of intellect as knowledge results from investment of cognitive resources, which, in turn, is affected by a small set of trait complexes.
Determinants of individual differences and gender differences in knowledge
Comments on an article by G. Latham concerning the reciprocal transfer of learning between journals and practice. Specifically, the author addresses issues related to the theory–practice balance in journal publications from 3 perspectives. First, the author considers the question of balance in terms of evaluating a single study, and discusses an alternative framework for making a decision about how the evaluate the potential “utility” of a study to the field. Second, the broader question of balance in a journal’s content is examined. It is suggested that concerns about balance at this level, such as whether a journal is too “theory-heavy” are less determined by the journal than by the state of the field. Also, balance in terms of the personal and situational characteristics that appear to foster valued work at the basic–applied interface is investigated.
I/O Psychology: Working at the basic-applied psychology interface
Motivation in the work context can be defined as an individual’s degree of willingness to exert and maintain an effort towards organizational goals. Health sector performance is critically dependent on worker motivation, with service quality, efficiency, and equity, all directly mediated by workers’ willingness to apply themselves to their tasks. Resource availability and worker competence are essential but not sufficient to ensure desired worker performance. While financial incentives may be important determinants of worker motivation, they alone cannot and have not resolved all worker motivation problems. Worker motivation is a complex process and crosses many disciplinary boundaries, including economics, psychology, organizational development, human resource management, and sociology. This paper discusses the many layers of influences upon health worker motivation: the internal individual-level determinants, determinants that operate at organizational (work context) level, and determinants stemming from interactions with the broader societal culture. Worker motivation will be affected by health sector reforms which potentially affect organizational culture, reporting structures, human resource management, channels of accountability, types of interactions with clients and communities, etc. The conceptual model described in this paper clarifies ways in which worker motivation is influenced and how health sector reform can positively affect worker motivation. Among others, health sector policy makers can better facilitate goal congruence (between workers and the organizations they work for) and improved worker motivation by considering the following in their design and implementation of health sector reforms: addressing multiple channels for worker motivation, recognizing the importance of communication and leadership for reforms, identifying organizational and cultural values that might facilitate or impede implementation of reforms, and understanding that reforms may have differential impacts on various cadres of health workers.
Health sector reform and public sector health work motivation: A conceptual framework
Reports the death of Frederick H. Kanfer (1925-2002) and his contributions to developing links between clinical theory and practice.
Frederick H. Kanfer (1925-2002)
We describe a framework for understanding how age-related changes in adult development affect work motivation, and, building on recent life-span theories and research on cognitive abilites, personality, affect, vocational interests, values, and self-concept, identify four intraindiviual change trajectories (loss, gain, reorganization, and exchange). We discuess implications of the integrative framework for the use and affectivesness of different motivational strategies with midlife and older workers in a varity of jobs, as well as abiding issues and future research directions.
Aging, adult development, and work motivation
Health worker motivation reflects the interactions between workers and their work environment. Because of the interactive nature of motivation, local organizational and broader sector policies have the potential to affect motivation of health workers, either positively or negatively, and as such to influence health system performance. Yet little is known about the key determinants and outcomes of motivation in developing and transition countries. This exploratory research, unique in its broader study of a whole range of motivational determinants and outcomes, was conducted in two hospitals in Jordan and two in Georgia. Three complementary approaches to data collection were used: (1) a contextual analysis; (2) a qualitative 360-degree assessment; and (3) a quantitative in-depth analysis focused on the individual determinants and outcomes of the worker’s motivational process. A wide range of psychometric scales was used to assess personality differences, perceived contextual factors and motivational outcomes on close to 500 employees in each country. This research highlights the complexity of worker motivation, and the need for a more comprehensive approach to increasing motivation, satisfaction and performance, and for interventions at both organizational and policy levels.
Determinants and consequences of health worker motivation in hospitals in Jordan and Georgia
Over the past three decades, industrial/organisational (I/O) research on goals and self-regulation has flourished. Beginning with the seminal work by Locke, Latham, and their colleagues showing the positive influence of difficult and specific goals on task performance, multiple streams of research have emerged to investigate both the determinants and consequences of goals and self-regulation processes on work-related behaviors and outcomes (see, e.g. Locke, Shaw, Saari, & Latham, 1981; Vancouver, 2000, for reviews). In a review of this work, Vancouver and Day (see record 2005-03192-002) suggest that although organisational researchers have sought evidence for external and criterion-related validity, less attention has been given to the construct and internal validity of key variables and concepts, such as goals, self-efficacy, feedback, discrepancy, and self-efficacy. In a related vein, Vancouver and Day conclude that although I/O intervention studies based on the goal/self-regulation perspective show generally positive effects, such studies are insufficient for understanding how specific aspects of the goal/self-regulation process relate to enhanced performance. In this short note, I consider these concerns about goal/self-regulation research in I/O psychology from three perspectives: (1) scientific progress, (2) applications, and (3) the goals of I/O research.
Self Regulation in work and I/O Psychology
Past research on the influence of self-efficacy in training has provided mixed results. Key differences between studies pertain to whether past performance is operationalized as a residual variable or as an unadjusted variable and to the type of tast used. In the study, the authors conducted and performed a reanalysis to examine the influence of self-efficacy using both operationalizations of past performance in 2 experimental tasks. Results indicate that, regardless of task version or type, self-efficacy predicted performance only when a residual measure of past performance was used, but not when past performance was unadjusted. However, when past performance was adjusted, the findings for self-efficacy were likely a statistical artifact. These results suggest that self-efficacy is a consequence rather than a cause of performance in training.
The predictive validity of self-efficacy in training performance: Little more than past performance in teams
Work motivation theories and research have tended to focus either on individual motivation, ignoring contextual influences of team processes on individuals, or on team motivation, ignoring individual differences within the team. Redressing these limited, single-level views of motivation, we delineate a theoretical multilevel model of motivated behavior in teams. First, we conceptualize motivational processes at both the individual and team levels, highlighting the functional similarities in these processes across levels of analysis. We then delineate a set of theoretical propositions regarding the cross-level interplay between individual and team motivation, and antecedents and outcomes of individual and team motivation. Finally, we discuss the implications of our theoretical model for future research and managerial practices.
Toward a systems theory of motivated behavior in work teams
A multilevel model of leadership, empowerment, and performance was tested using a sample of 62 teams, 445 individual members, 62 team leaders, and 31 external managers from 31 stores of a Fortune 500 company. Leader-member exchange and leadership climate related differently to individual and team empowerment and interacted to influence individual empowerment. Also, several relationships were supported in more but not in less interdependent teams. Specifically, leader-member exchange related to individual performance partially through individual empowerment; leadership climate related to team performance partially through team empowerment; team empowerment moderated the relationship between individual empowerment and performance; and individual performance was positively related to team performance. Contributions to team leadership theory, research, and practices are discussed.
A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams
The influence of age and gender composition on group performance and self-reported health disorders was examined with data from 4,538 federal tax employees working in 222 natural work unit groups. As hypothesized, age diversity correlated positively with performance only in groups solving complex decision-making tasks, and this finding was replicated when analyzing performance data collected 1 year later. Age diversity was also positively correlated with health disorders–but only in groups working on routine decision-making tasks. Gender composition also had a significant effect on group performance, such that groups with a high proportion of female employees performed worse and reported more health disorders than did gender-diverse teams. As expected, effects of gender composition were most pronounced in large groups. Effects of age diversity were found when controlling for gender diversity and vice versa. Thus, age and gender diversity seem to play a unique role in performance and well-being. The moderating role of task complexity for both effects of age diversity and the moderating role of group size for both effects of gender diversity further suggest that the impact of these 2 variables depends on different group processes (e.g., knowledge exchange, variation in gender salience).
Age and gender diversity as determinants of performance and health in a public organization: The role of task complexity and group size
(from the chapter) In developed countries around the World such as Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, midlife (aged 45-65) and older (aged 65 and older) persons represent the fastest growing segments of the active workforce. Several factors contribute to this trend. Although mean age of retirement has declined by about 5 years over the past 5 decades, the rapid rise of life expectancy (by about 7 years over the same period) means that there is a much larger population of older individuals. In addition, recent changes in economic conditions, advances in health care, and significant shifts in sociocultural attitudes toward work and associated legislation have encouraged more individuals to engage in paid work well into their 7th decade of life. At the same time, low birthrates during the late 20th century and longer periods of educational training have contributed to a decline in the number of available younger workers, particularly in positions that require extensive training or work experience. As a practical consequence of these trends, organizations, of necessity, have focused increasing attention on midlife and older workers and on age-related influences on motivation, performance, and productivity. In response, a small but growing number of organizational scholars have examined the effects of aging and an age-diverse workforce for the development of a diverse array of human resource functions including the attraction, training, management, and retention of older workers. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of age-related influences on work motivation and its outcomes. In the first section, we provide a brief overview of the key constructs and mechanisms involved in work motivation. In the second section, we discuss two major sources of age-related influences on motivation: (a) social-contextual influences and (b) changes in person characteristics over the life span. In the third section, we discuss four age-related change patterns in person attributes that influence key determinants of motivation and performance. In the fourth section, we consider indirect influences on motivation associated with age bias in managerial decision making and worker perceptions of age discrimination. In the fifth and final section, we describe how age-related factors may influence workplace motivation, and we describe implications of theory and research for the development of effective practices to sustain and promote work motivation in an aging workforce.
Aging and work motivation
The SAT® has changed in several ways over the eight decades that it has been administered to college-bound high school students, including changes in both content and format (for a review, see Lawrence, Rigol, Van Essen, and Jackson, 2002). The original test administered in 1926 contained both verbal and mathematics content and was highly speeded, with a total time limit of 97 minutes. Subsequent modifications and additions to the SAT have resulted in testing times ranging from 120 to 180 minutes. Prior to the most recent revision in 2005, the SAT involved 180 minutes (3 hours) of testing across a total session of about 3½ hours (to accommodate instructions, short breaks, and administration time). In 2005, the most recent significant change in both content and format has been the introduction of an essay section and some modifications in the other sections (e.g., the elimination of verbal analogy items). The addition of the essay section has resulted in an SAT test that involves 225 minutes (3 hours, 45 minutes) of total test time spread over a period of about 4½ hours (that includes instructions, short breaks, and administration time). Examinees arrive at the place of testing before 8 a.m. to check in, and do not complete the SAT session until approximately 12:30 p.m. The high-stakes nature of the test, coupled with the increased total testing time, has resulted in speculation from a variety of sources, especially in the popular press (e.g., FairTest, 2006; FOXNews.com, 2006; Hildebrand, 2007; Lewin, 2005; MacDonald, 2005) that (a) performance on the SAT is negatively affected by the additional testing time; (b) examinee fatigue increases as a function of the increased total testing time; and, by implication, (c) that examinee fatigue is an influential factor in performance on the SAT. The current study was designed to examine performance effects and fatigue effects associated with different total SAT testing times. In addition, we examined personality, motivation, and other determinants of individual differences in examinee fatigue before, during, and after testing.
Effects of total SAT test time on performance and fatigue
This study investigates a mood regulation-based reconciliation of prior findings in the mood maintenance and information processes literatures about the impact of negative mood state on risktaking judgment. Participants were administered a negative mood state induction using a standardized film clip procedure and subsequently completed a measure of risk-taking judgment under one of three conditions: (1) immediately following the mood induction, (2) following a 5 min no-task delay period, or (3) following performance of a cognitively demanding task. As expected, participants who made risk judgments after the performance of the cognitively demanding task showed higher level of recovery from the negative mood induction (i.e., increased positive mood and decreased negative mood) and lower levels of risk-taking judgment than participants in the delayed condition. Additional analyses showed the risk-taking judgments were explained by mood change after the interpolated task. These findings reconcile previous inconsistencies between the two perspectives. Implications for future research on the restorative role of cognitive task performance as a mood regulation strategy are discussed.
The joint influence of mood and a cognitively demanding task on risk-taking
The use of team training programs is promising with regards to their ability to impact knowledge, attitudes, and behavior about team skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simulation-based team training program called Obstetric Crisis Team Training Program (OBCTT) (based on the original training program of Crisis Team Training) framed within a multilevel team theoretical model. We hypothesized that participation in OBCTT would positively impact 10 variables: individual’s knowledge (about team process and obstetric emergency care); confidence and competence in handling obstetric emergencies; and participant attitudes (toward the utility of a rapid response team, simulation technology as a teaching methodology, the utility of team skills in the workplace, comfort in assuming team roles; and individual and team performance). Improvement of objectively measured team performance in a simulated environment was also assessed.
Simulation-based crisis team training for multidisciplinary obstetric providers
Person and situational determinants of cognitive ability test performance and subjective reactions were examined in the context of tests with different time-on-task requirements. Two hundred thirty-nine first-year university students participated in a within-participant experiment, with completely counterbalanced treatment conditions and test forms. Participants completed three test sessions of different length: (a) a standard-length SAT test battery (total time 41⁄2 hr), (b) a shorter SAT test battery (total time 31⁄2 hr), and (c) a longer SAT test battery (total time 51⁄2 hr). Consistent with expectations, subjective fatigue increased with increasing time-on-task. However, mean performance increased in the longer test length conditions, compared with the shorter test length condition. Individual differences in personality/interest/motivation trait complexes were found to have greater power than the test-length situations for predicting subjective cognitive fatigue before, during, and at the end of each test session. The relative contributions of traits and time-on-task for cognitive fatigue are discussed, along with implications for research and practice.
Test length and cognitive fatigue: an empirical examination of performance effects and examinee reactions
Although individual- and team-level studies of motivational processes abound, very few have sought to link such phenomena across levels. Filling this gap, we build upon Chen and Kanfer’s (2006) multilevel theoretical model of motivation in teams, to advance and test a cross-level model of relationships between individual and team motivation and performance. Data from two samples of undergraduates performing simulated team tasks supported the direct and mediated cross-level relationships between team-level prior performance, efficacy, and action processes with individual-level self-efficacy, goal striving, and performance. The findings provide support for a multilevel, system-based formulation of motivation and performance in teams. Findings also contribute to the on-going debate on whether motivational processes account for performance once controlling for prior performance.
The motivating potential of teams: Test and extension of Chen & Kanfer’s (2006) cross-level model of motivation in teams
The study of work motivation progresses through the inspiration that comes from creating new alignments between scientific understanding and considerations of practical use (cf. D. E. Stokes, 1997). Using the 3 C’s framework for work motivation (Kanfer, Chen, & Pritchard, 2008a, b), I coordinate 5 practical concerns related to work motivation with recent scientific trends in order to encourage the development ofew research agendas in the field.
Work motivation: Identifying new use-inspired research directions
- The article presents a response by the author to the comments of her article “Work Motivation: Identifying Use-Inspired Research Directions.” According to the author, some comments are provocative while others are more instructive and reflects a positive, forward-looking tone towards the article. The author indicates that most of the commentaries are focusing more on core questions such as implicit motives in action regulation, the structure of situations, as well as the impact of situations on work motivation.
Work motivation: Advancing theory and impact
We investigated the training effects and transfer effects associated with 2 approaches to cognitive activities (so-called brain training) that might mitigate age-related cognitive decline. A sample of 78 adults between the ages of 50 and 71 completed 20 one-hr training sessions with the Nintendo Wii Big Brain Academy software over the course of 1 month and, in a second month, completed 20 one-hr reading sessions with articles on 4 different current topics (order of assignment was counterbalanced for the participants). An extensive battery of cognitive and perceptual speed ability measures was administered before and after each month of cognitive training activities, along with a battery of domain-knowledge tests. Results indicated substantial improvements on the Wii tasks, somewhat less improvement on the domain knowledge tests, and practice-related improvements on 6 of the 10 ability tests. However, there was no significant transfer of training from either the Wii practice or the reading tasks to measures of cognitive and perceptual speed abilities. Implications for these findings are discussed in terms of adult intellectual development and maintenance.
Use it or lose it? Wii brain exercise practice and reading for domain knowledge
What are the consequences of testing over an extended period? We report a study of 4 hr of nearly continuous testing on two verbal tests (Cloze and Completion). Prior to the testing session, participants completed a series of nonability trait measures, including selected personality and motivation scales. During the study, participants (N = 99) were also administered a series of subjective fatigue and affect measures. We examined the effect of increasing time-on-task on performance and subjective fatigue, along with the relative influences of trait measures in predicting individual differences in subjective fatigue as time-on-task increased. In addition, we examined whether performance strategy differences were associated with either performance or subjective fatigue measures. Results indicated a dissociation between subjective fatigue (increasing over time-on-task) and performance measures (which were stable or showed slight improvements as time-on-task increased). Trait complexes accounted for significant amounts of variance in subjective fatigue and positive affect over the course of the test session. Performance strategies of overactivity, withdrawal, and mixed overactivity and withdrawal were identified, and correlates of the strategies were examined. Implications for analyzing performance strategies to evaluate reactions to cognitive fatigue, and the prediction of individual differences in cognitive fatigue during testing are discussed.
Cognitive fatigue during testing: An examination of trait, time-on-task, and strategy influences
A battery of cognitive ability, knowledge, and non-ability measures were administered to 105 college students enrolled in a cooperative school-work program and used to predict academic and job performance. Composite scores for each domain were derived from factor analyses of 11 measures of verbal, numerical, and spatial abilities, four measures of domain knowledge, and 27 measures of personality and motivational traits, vocational interests, and self-assessments. Both ability and non-ability trait composites were significant predictors of academic performance, but only the non-ability trait composites predicted job performance. Implications for the integrative assessment of individual differences and their predictive validities for performance in different active work contexts, as well as the importance of trait composites across contexts, are discussed.
Ability and trait complex predictors of academic and job performance: A person-situation approach
An updated literature review was conducted and a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between age and work-related motives. Building on theorizing in life span psychology, we hypothesized the existence of age-related differences in work-related motives. Specifically, we proposed an age-related increase in the strength of security and social motives, and an age-related decrease in the strength of growth motives. To investigate life span developmental theory predictions about age-related differences in control strategies, we also examined the relationship between age and intrinsic and extrinsic motives. Consistent with our predictions, meta-analytic results showed a significant positive relationship between age and intrinsic motives, and a significant negative relationship between age and strength of growth and extrinsic motives. The predicted positive relation between age and strength of social and security motives was only found among certain subgroups. Implications of these findings for work motivation and life span theories and future research are discussed. Copyright # 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Age and work related motives: Results of a meta-analysis
Abstract goes here
Simulation-based crisis team training for multidisciplinary obstetric providers
We propose and examine a self-regulatory framework focused on understanding the dynamics of job search intensity and mental health over the first several months of unemployment. We use a repeated-measures design, surveying newly unemployed individuals weekly for 20 weeks. Through the lens of our framework, we test relationships pertaining to the role of motivational “traits” (i.e., temporally stable approach and avoidance motivations) and self-regulatory “states” (i.e., more transient motivation control and self-defeating cognition) in predicting job seekers’ search intensity and mental health over the duration of our study. The findings provide evidence on the dynamics of the job search journey.
After the pink slip: Applying dynamic motivation frameworks to the job search experience.
Demographics of workforce aging in the developed world have spurred research on the determinants of older worker motivation to work, motivation to retire, and motivation at work. We propose an integrative framework of later adulthood goals related to work and the motivational determinants of these goals in order to better understand goal relations. We also discuss the common and unique effects of person and contextual determinants of later adulthood work-related goals and propose new directions for future research.
Goals and motivation related to work in later adulthood: An organizing framework
The present study investigated the relationship between standard setting and judgments of self-efficacy in the domain of interpersonal functioning for depressed and nondepressed subjects. Consistent with a self-control model of depression, a large discrepancy between personal standards and judgments of personal efficacy for performance was postulated to be related to depression. Students who scored above 13 on two administrations of the Beck Depression Inventory composed the depressed group. Thirty-nine depressed and 39 nondepressed students rated their minimal standards for adequate interpersonal performance, its importance to them, and their judgments of self-efficacy for the same tasks. Depressed subjects showed a larger discrepancy between strength of interpersonal standards and strength of self-efficacy than did the normal subjects. Depressed subjects expressed a lower strength of self-efficacy than did nondepressed subjects, but they did not differ on their interpersonal standards. Importance and the strength for standards correlated positively for both depressed and normal subjects. The present findings are consistent with recent extensions of Lewinsohn’s model of depression, which suggest that disruptions in self-evaluation are related to lowered judgments of self-efficacy for depressed subjects.
Depression, interpersonal standard setting, and judgments of self-efficacy
Participation in organizational decisions is thought to have a number of positive effects on performance and worker attitudes, but it is not clear which elements of participation are responsible for these positive effects. The effects of two elements of participation, upward information input by the worker and the provision of downward knowledge by a supervisor, were examined in a laboratory setting. Thirty-eight male and 49 female undergraduates worked on a task under a performance evaluation procedure that either did or did not allow them to offer information about their performance to an evaluator. A supervisor either did or did not offer information about criteria for evaluation of performance. The subject received either a positive or negative outcome from the evaluation procedure. Upward information flow and downward information flow interacted in their effect on task performance, with highest performance occurring under high upward and high downward information exchange. Performance on a subsequent task increased following downward information on the first task. Upward information flow produced higher ratings of procedural fairness, satisfaction with outcomes, and satisfaction with the supervisor. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for participatory effects and their implications for the design of organizational performance appraisal procedures.