Publications

Recent Publications

van Woerkom, M., Kooij, D., & Kanfer, R. (in press). Growth motives and learning behaviors among older workers: Toward a more comprehensive assessment. Human Resource Development Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/15344843231199129 

Ackerman, P. L. (2023). Intelligence … moving beyond the lowest common denominator. American Psychologist, 78(3), 283–297. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0001057

Ackerman, P. L. (2023). Knowledge and intelligence: Reply to Oswald et al. (2023) and Sternberg (2023). American Psychologist, 78(3), 303–304. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0001137

Larson, L. E., Harris-Watson, A., Carter, D., Asencio, R., DeChurch, L., Kanfer, R., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2023). Staying apart to work better together: Team structure in cross-functional teams. Academy of Management Discoveries. https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2020.0238 

Ackerman, P. L. (2022). Intelligence process vs. content and academic performance: A trip through a house of mirrors. Journal of Intelligence, 10(4), 128. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence10040128 

Beier, M. E., Kanfer, R., Kooij, D. T., & Truxillo, D. M. (2022). What’s age got to do with it? A Primer and review of the Workplace Aging Literature. Personnel Psychology, 75(4), 779–804. https://doi.org/10.1111/peps.12544 

Kooij, D. T., & Kanfer, R. (2022). Age and Job Crafting: How and Why do Employees of Different Ages Craft Their Job?. In H. Zacher & C. W. Rudolph (Eds.), Age and Work: Advances in Theory, Methods, and Practice (pp. 241-258). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003089674

Tidler, Z. R., Tatel, C. E., & Ackerman, P. L. (2022, September). The Internet and Manuals: A Use-Oriented Study of the Acquisition of Novel Procedural Knowledge. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 1834-1838). SAGE Publications. https://doi.org/10.1177/1071181322661354 

Tatel, C. E., Lyndgaard, S. F., Kanfer, R., & Melkers, J. E. (2022). Learning while working: Course enrollment behavior as a macro-level indicator of learning management among adult learners. Journal of Learning Analytics, 9(3), 104-124. https://doi.org/10.18608/jla.2022.7625 

Tatel, C. E., Tidler, Z. R., & Ackerman, P. L. (2022). Process differences as a function of test modifications: Construct validity of Raven’s advanced progressive matrices under standard, abbreviated and/or speeded conditions–A meta-analysis. Intelligence, 90, 101604. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2021.101604 

Lyndgaard, S. F., Tidler, Z. R., Provine, L., & Varma, S. (2022). Catastrophic interference in neural network models is mitigated when the training data reflect a power-law environmental structure. In J. Culbertson, A. Perfors, H. Rabagliati & V. Ramenzoni (Eds.), Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2634 – 2641). Toronto, CA: Cognitive Science Society.

Lyndgaard, S. F., Tatel, C. E., Kanfer, R., Melkers, J. E., & Sabree, J. C. (2022). Hidden costs: COVID-19’s disproportionate impact on underrepresented groups in graduate computing education. Computer-Based Learning in Context, 4(1), 16-37. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.6616493 

van Hooft, E. A., Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., Wanberg, C. R., Kanfer, R., & Basbug, G. (2021). Job search and employment success: A quantitative review and future research agenda. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(5), 674–713. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000675 

Ackerman, P. L. (2021).  A long ‘intellectual’ journey.  In D. Dai & R. J. Sternberg (Eds).  Scientific inquiry into human potential: Historical and contemporary perspective across disciplines (pp. 16-28).  Routledge..

Ackerman, P. L. (2021).  Abilities & skills:  assessing humans and artificial intelligence/robotics systems.  In AI and the Future of Skills, Volume 1: Capabilities and assessments, Educational Research and Innovation (pp. 150-159). OECD Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1787/5ee71f34-en 

Ackerman, P. L. (2021). Commentary: The future of college admissions tests. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 40(4), 38–40. https://doi.org/10.1111/emip.12456

Ackerman, P. L. (2021).  Review of Beta-4.  In J. F. Carlson, K. F. Geisinger, & J. L. Jonson (Eds.) The twenty-first mental measurements yearbook (91-93).  Buros Center for Testing, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Ackerman, P. L. (2021).  Review of NIH Toolbox-Motor Domain.  In J. F. Carlson, K. F. Geisinger, & J. L. Jonson (Eds.) The twenty-first mental measurements yearbook (481-483).  Buros Center for Testing, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Ackerman, P. L., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2020). A primer on assessing intelligence in laboratory studies. Intelligence, 80, Article 101440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2020.101440

Ackerman, P. L. (2020). Intelligence and expertise. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence (2nd Edition, pp. 1159-1176). Cambridge University Press.

Ackerman, P. L., Tatel, C. E., & Lyndgaard, S. F. (2020). Subjective (dis)utility of effort: Mentally and physically demanding tasks. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 5, Article 26. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41235-020-00226-5

Kanfer, R., Lyndgaard, S. F., & Tatel, C. E, (2020). For whom the pandemic tolls: A person-centric analysis of older workers. Work, Aging, and Retirement, 6(4), 238-241. https://doi.org/10.1093/workar/waaa014 

Lim, L., Kanfer, R., Stroebel, R. J., & Zimring, C. M. (2020). The representational function of clinic design: Staff and patient perceptions of teamwork. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 14(2), 254–270. https://doi.org/10.1177/1937586720957074 

Lim, L., Kanfer, R., Stroebel, R. J., & Zimring, C. M. (2020). Beyond co-location: Visual connections of staff workstations and staff communication in Primary Care Clinics. Environment and Behavior, 54(1), 3–35. https://doi.org/10.1177/0013916520950270 

Fletcher, K. A., Kanfer, R., & Tatel, C. (2020). Workplace emotions and motivation: Toward a unified approach. In L. Yang, R. Cropanzano, C. S. Daus, & V. Martínez-Tur (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Workplace Affect (pp. 52-64). Cambridge University Press.

Kim, S., Irizarry, J., & Kanfer, R. (2020). Multilevel goal model for decision-making in UAS visual inspections in construction and infrastructure projects. Journal of Management in Engineering, 36(4), 04020036. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)ME.1943-5479.0000803 

Lim, L., Kanfer, R., Stroebel, R. J., & Zimring, C. M. (2020). Backstage staff communication: The effects of different levels of visual exposure to patients. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 13(3), 54-69. https://doi.org/10.1177/1937586719888903 

Ackerman, P. L., & Kanfer, R. (2020). Work in the 21st century: New directions for aging and adult development. American Psychologist, 75(4), 486–498. https://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000615

Larson, L. E., Harris, A. M., Asencio, R., Carter, D. R., DeChurch, L. A., Kanfer, R., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2020). Cross-disciplinary team design, communication overload, and innovation. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2020, No. 1, p. 21054). Academy of Management. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMBPP.2020.21054abstract 

Kanfer, R., & Fletcher, K. A. (2020). Work motivation and employment goals in later adulthood. In S. Czaja, J. Sharit, & J. James (Eds.), Current and emerging trends in aging and work (pp. 219-241). Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-24135-3_11 

Calderwood, C., & Ackerman, P. L. (2019). Modeling intraindividual variation in unsafe driving in a naturalistic commuting environment. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(4), 423–437. https://doi.org/10.1037/ocp0000127

Kanfer, R., & Blivin, J. (2019). Prospects and pitfalls in building the future workforce. In F. Oswald, T. S. Behrend, & L. Foster (Eds.), Workforce Readiness and the Future of Work (pp. 251-259). Routledge.

Carter, D. R., Asencio, R., Trainer, H. M., DeChurch, L. A., Kanfer, R., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2019). Best Practices for Researchers Working in Multiteam Systems. In K. Hall, A. Vogel, & R. Croyle (Eds.), Strategies for Team Science Success: Handbook of Evidence-Based Principles for Cross-Disciplinary Science and Practical Lessons Learned from Health Researchers (pp. 391-400). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-20992-6_29 

Kooij, D. T. A. M., & Kanfer, R. (2019). Lifespan perspectives on work motivation. In B. B. Baltes, C. W. Rudolph, & H. Zacher (Eds.), Work across the lifespan (pp. 475–493). Elsevier Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-812756-8.00020-7

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). The search for personality-intelligence relations: methodological and conceptual issues. Journal of Intelligence, 6(2), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence6010002 

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). Mind-personality relations: Comment on Demetriou et al. (2018). Journal of Intelligence, 6(52), 1-2. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence6040052 

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). Intelligence as potentiality and actuality. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The Nature of Human Intelligence (pp. 1-14). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316817049.002 

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). Intelligence‑as‑process, personality, interests, and intelligence‑as‑knowledge: A framework for adult intellectual development. In D. P. Flanagan & E. M. McDonough (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (pp. 225–241). The Guilford Press.

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). Aptitude Tests. In B. B. Frey (Ed.). SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation (pp. 111-114).  Sage. (This is an adapted version of Ackerman, 2007.)

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). Expertise: Individual differences, human abilities, and nonability traits. In S. I. Pfeiffer, E. Shaunessy-Dedrick, & M. Foley-Nicpon (Eds.), APA handbook of giftedness and talent (pp. 259–272). American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000038-017

Ackerman, P. L., & Beier, M. E. (2018). Methods for studying the structure of expertise: Psychometric approaches. In K. A. Ericsson, R. R. Hoffman, A. Kozbelt, & A. M. Williams (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 213–232). Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316480748.013

Ackerman, P. L., & Lakin, J. M. (2018). Expertise and individual differences. In S. Pfeiffer (Ed.) Handbook of Giftedness in Children: Psycho-Educational Theory, Research and Best Practices (pp. 65-80). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-77004-8_5 

Beier, M. E., LoPilato, A. C., & Kanfer, R. (2018). Successful motivational aging at work: Antecedents and retirement-related outcomes. Work, Aging and Retirement, 4(2), 213-224. https://doi.org/10.1093/workar/wax034 

Kanfer, R., & Bufton, G. M. (2018). Job loss and job search: A social-cognitive and self-regulation perspective. In U. Klehe, & E. van Hooft (Eds.) The Oxford handbook of job loss and job search (pp. 143-158). Oxford University Press. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199764921.001.0001 

Kooij, D. T. A. M., Kanfer, R., Betts, M., & Rudolph, C. W. (2018). Future time perspective: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(8), 867–893. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000306

Ackerman, P. L. (2017). Adult intelligence: The construct and the criterion problem. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(6), 987–998. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691617703437

Heckhausen, J., Shane, J., & Kanfer, R. (2017). Competence and motivation at work throughout adulthood: Making the most of changing capacities and opportunities. In A. J. Elliot, C. S. Dweck, & D. S. Yeager (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation: Theory and application (pp. 449–470). The Guilford Press.

Kanfer, R., Frese, M., & Johnson, R. E. (2017). Motivation related to work: A century of progress. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 338–355. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000133

Selected Books

Facing the Challenges of a Multi-Age Workforce: A Use-Inspired Approach

Facing the Challenges of a Multi-Age Workforce examines the shifting economic, cultural, and technological trends in the modern workplace that are taking place as a result of the aging global workforce. Taking an international perspective, contributors address workforce aging issues around the world, allowing for productive cross-cultural comparisons. Chapters adopt a use-inspired approach, with contributors proposing solutions to real problems faced by organizations, including global teamwork, unemployed youth, job obsolescence and over-qualification, heavy emotional labor and physically demanding jobs, and cross-age perceptions and communication. Additional commentaries from sociologists, gerontologists, economists, and scholars of labor and government round out the volume and demonstrate the interdisciplinary nature of this important topic.

Citation: Kanfer, R. (2015).  Employment Transitions in Late Adulthood.  In Finkelstein, L, Truxillo, D, Fraccaroli, F., & Kanfer, R. (Eds.), Facing the challenges of a multi-age workforce: A use-inspired approach (pp. 339-343).  New York: Psychology Press.

Learning and Individual Differences: Process, Trait, and Content Determinants

Researchers from the United States and seven other countries present leading-edge research and theory concerning the topic of learning and individual differences, which continues to be a vibrant area for multidisciplinary investigation. Developments in several areas, including cognitive, experimental, instructional, quantitative methodology, and differential psychology provide key insights for understanding both the characteristics of the learner and the characteristics of the learning situation. Of particular value is new research on information processing, ability traits, and knowledge as they pertain to adult learning and individual differences.

Citation: Ackerman, P.L., Kyllonen, P.C., Roberts, R.D. (Eds). (1999). Learning and individual differences: Process, trait, and content determinants. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Additional Selected Publications

Ackerman, P. L. (2016). Process overlap and g do not adequately account for a general factor of intelligence. Psychological Inquiry, 27(3), 178–180. https://doi.org/10.1080/1047840X.2016.1158087

Ackerman, P. L., & Ellingsen, V. J. (2016). Speed and accuracy indicators of test performance under different instructional conditions: Intelligence correlates. Intelligence, 56, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2016.02.004

Calderwood, C., & Ackerman, P. L. (2016). The relative salience of daily and enduring influences on off-job reactions to work stress. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 32(5), 587–596. https://doi.org/10.1002/smi.2665

Ellingsen, V. J, & Ackerman, P. L. (2016). Cross-sectional designs. In Encyclopedia of Adulthood and Aging (pp. 1-4). Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118521373.wbeaa021 

Ellingsen, V. J, & Ackerman, P. L. (2016). Fluid-crystallized theory of intelligence. In Encyclopedia of Adulthood and Aging (pp. 1-5). Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118521373.wbeaa022 

Jipp, M., & Ackerman, P. L. (2016).  The impact of higher levels of automation on performance and situation awareness:  A function of information-processing ability and working-memory capacity.  Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 10(2), 138-166. https://doi.org/10.1177/1555343416637517

Kanfer, R., & Chen, G. (2016). Motivation in organizational behavior: History, advances and prospects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 136, 6–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2016.06.002

Wanberg, C. R., Kanfer, R., Hamann, D. J., & Zhang, Z. (2016). Age and reemployment success after job loss: An integrative model and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 142(4), 400–426. https://doi.org/10.1037/bul0000019

Kooij, D. T. A. M., Tims, M., & Kanfer, R. (2015). Successful aging at work: The role of job crafting. In P. M. Bal, D. T. A. M. Kooij, & D. M. Rousseau (Eds.), Aging workers and the employee-employer relationship (pp. 145–161). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-08007-9_9

Ackerman, P. L. (2014). Facts are stubborn things. Intelligence, 45, 104–106. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2014.01.002

Ackerman, P. L. (2014). Nonsense, common sense, and science of expert performance: Talent and individual differences. Intelligence, 45, 6–17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.intell.2013.04.009

Kooij, D. T. A. M., Bal, P. M., & Kanfer, R. (2014). Future time perspective and promotion focus as determinants of intraindividual change in work motivation. Psychology and Aging, 29(2), 319–328. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036768

Ackerman, P. L., Kanfer, R., & Beier, M. E. (2013). Trait complex, cognitive ability, and domain knowledge predictors of baccalaureate success, STEM persistence, and gender differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 911–927. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032338

Kanfer, R., Beier, M. E., & Ackerman, P. L. (2013). Goals and motivation related to work in later adulthood: An organizing framework. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(3), 253–264. https://doi.org/10.1080/1359432X.2012.734298

von Stumm, S., & Ackerman, P. L. (2013). Investment and intellect: A review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 139(4), 841–869. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0030746

Kanfer, R. (2012). Work motivation: Theory, practice, and future directions. In S. W. J. Kozlowski (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of organizational psychology, Vol. 1, pp. 455–495). Oxford University Press.

Toker, Y., & Ackerman, P. L. (2012). Utilizing occupational complexity levels in vocational interest assessments: Assessing interests for STEM areas. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 524–544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2011.09.001

Ackerman, P. L., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2011). Trait complexes and academic achievement: Old and new ways of examining personality in educational contexts. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(1), 27–40. https://doi.org/10.1348/000709910X522564

Kooij, D. T. A. M., de Lange, A. H., Jansen, P. G. W., Kanfer, R., & Dikkers, J. S. E. (2011). Age and work-related motives: Results of a meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(2), 197–225. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.665

von Stumm, S., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Ackerman, P. L. (2011). Re-visiting intelligence-personality associations: Vindicating intellectual investment. In T. Chamorro-Premuzic, S. von Stumm, & A. Furnham (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of individual differences (pp. 217–241). Wiley Blackwell.

Ackerman, P. L., & Kanfer, R. (2009). Test length and cognitive fatigue: An empirical examination of effects on performance and test-taker reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15(2), 163–181. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015719

Chen, G., Kanfer, R., DeShon, R. P., Mathieu, J. E., & Kozlowski, S. W.J. (2009). The motivating potential of teams: Test and extension of Chen and Kanfer’s (2006) cross-level model of motivation in teams. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110(1), 45–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2009.06.006

Ackerman, P. L. (2008). Knowledge and cognitive aging. In F. I. M. Craik & T. A. Salthouse (Eds.), The handbook of aging and cognition (pp. 445–489). Psychology Press.

Wegge, J., Roth, C., Neubach, B., Schmidt, K.-H., & Kanfer, R. (2008). Age and gender diversity as determinants of performance and health in a public organization: The role of task complexity and group size. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1301–1313. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0012680

Kanfer, R., Chen, G., & Pritchard, R. D. (2008). The three C’s of work motivation: Content, context, and change. In R. Kanfer, G. Chen, & R. D. Pritchard (Eds.), Work motivation: Past, present, and future (pp. 1–16). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203809501

Ackerman, P. L., & Wolman, S. D. (2007). Determinants and validity of self-estimates of abilities and self-concept measures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13(2), 57–78. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.13.2.57

Chen, G., Kirkman, B. L., Kanfer, R., Allen, D., & Rosen, B. (2007). A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 331–346. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.2.331

Chen, G., & Kanfer, R. (2006). Toward a systems theory of motivated behavior in work teams. Research in Organizational Behavior, 27, 223-267. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-3085(06)27006-0 

Ackerman, P. L., Beier, M. E., & Boyle, M. O. (2005). Working memory and intelligence: The same or different constructs? Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 30–60. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.30

Beier, M. E., & Ackerman, P. L. (2005). Age, ability, and the role of prior knowledge on the acquisition of new domain knowledge: Promising results in a real-world learning environment. Psychology and Aging, 20(2), 341–355. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.20.2.341

Morris, M. G., Venkatesh, V., & Ackerman, P. L. (2005). Gender and age differences in employee decisions about new technology: An extension to the theory of planned behavior. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 52(1), 69-84. https://doi.org/10.1109/TEM.2004.839967 

Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P. L. (2004). Aging, Adult Development, and Work Motivation. The Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 440–458. https://doi.org/10.2307/20159053

Franco, L. M., Bennett, S., Kanfer, R., & Stubblebine, P. (2004). Determinants and consequences of health worker motivation in hospitals in Jordan and Georgia. Social Science & Medicine, 58(2), 343–355. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00203-X

Beier, M. E., & Ackerman, P. L. (2003). Determinants of health knowledge: An investigation of age, gender, abilities, personality, and interests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 439–448. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.439

Ackerman, P. L., Beier, M. E., & Bowen, K. R. (2002). What we really know about our abilities and our knowledge. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(4), 587–605. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00174-X

Ackerman, P. L., Beier, M. E., & Boyle, M. D. (2002). Individual differences in working memory within a nomological network of cognitive and perceptual speed abilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131(4), 567–589. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.131.4.567

Franco, L. M., Bennett, S., & Kanfer, R. (2002). Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: A conceptual framework. Social Science & Medicine, 54(8), 1255–1266. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(01)00094-6

Lord, R. G., & Kanfer, R. (2002). Emotions and organizational behavior. In R.G. Lord, R.J. Klimoski and R. Kanfer (Eds.), Emotions in the workplace: Understanding the structure and role of emotions in organizational behavior (pp. 5-19). Jossey Bass.

Ackerman, P. L., Bowen, K. R., Beier, M. E., & Kanfer, R. (2001). Determinants of individual differences and gender differences in knowledge. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(4), 797–825. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.93.4.797

Kanfer, R., Wanberg, C. R., & Kantrowitz, T. M. (2001). Job search and employment: A personality–motivational analysis and meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 837–855. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.86.5.837

Ackerman, P. L. (2000). Domain-specific knowledge as the “dark matter” of adult intelligence: Gf/Gc, personality and interest correlates. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 55(2), P69–P84. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/55.2.P69

Ackerman, P. L., & Cianciolo, A. T. (2000). Cognitive, perceptual-speed, and psychomotor determinants of individual differences during skill acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 6(4), 259–290. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.6.4.259

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., & Ackerman, P. L. (2000). A longitudinal field investigation of gender differences in individual technology adoption decision-making processes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 83(1), 33–60. https://doi.org/10.1006/obhd.2000.2896

Wanberg, C. R., Kanfer, R., & Banas, J. T. (2000). Predictors and outcomes of networking intensity among unemployed job seekers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(4), 491–503. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.4.491

Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P. L. (2000). Individual differences in work motivation: Further explorations of a trait framework. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49(3), 470–482. https://doi.org/10.1111/1464-0597.00026

Heggestad, E. D., & Kanfer, R. (2000). Individual differences in trait motivation: Development of the Motivational Trait Questionnaire. International Journal of Educational Research, 33, 751–776. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0883-0355(00)00049-5

Ackerman, P. L., & Rolfhus, E. L. (1999). The locus of adult intelligence: Knowledge, abilities, and nonability traits. Psychology and Aging, 14(2), 314–330. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.14.2.314

Rolfhus, E. L., & Ackerman, P. L. (1999). Assessing individual differences in knowledge: Knowledge, intelligence, and related traits. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 511–526. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.91.3.511

Wanberg, C. R., Kanfer, R., & Rotundo, M. (1999). Unemployed individuals: Motives, job-search competencies, and job-search constraints as predictors of job seeking and reemployment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(6), 897–910. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.84.6.897

Ackerman, P. L., & Heggestad, E. D. (1997). Intelligence, personality, and interests: Evidence for overlapping traits. Psychological Bulletin, 121(2), 219–245. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.121.2.219

Kanfer, R., & Heggestad, E. D. (1997). Motivational traits and skills: A person-centered approach to work motivation. Research In Organizational Behavior, 19, 1-56.

Ackerman, P. L. (1996). A theory of adult intellectual development: Process, personality, interests, and knowledge. Intelligence, 22(2), 227–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0160-2896(96)90016-1

Schneider, R. J., Ackerman, P. L., & Kanfer, R. (1996). To “act wisely in human relations”: Exploring the dimensions of social competence. Personality and Individual Differences, 21(4), 469–481. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(96)00084-0

Kanfer, R., Ackerman, P. L., & Heggestad, E. D. (1996). Motivational skills & self-regulation for learning: A trait perspective. Learning and Individual Differences, 8(3), 185-209. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1041-6080(96)90014-X 

Ackerman, P. L., Kanfer, R., & Goff, M. (1995). Cognitive and noncognitive determinants and consequences of complex skill acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 1(4), 270–304. https://doi.org/10.1037/1076-898X.1.4.270

Kanfer, R., Ackerman, P. L., Murtha, T. C., Dugdale, B., & Nelson, L. (1994). Goal setting, conditions of practice, and task performance: A resource allocation perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(6), 826–835. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.6.826

Kanfer, R. (1994). Work motivation: New directions in theory and research. In C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Eds.), Key reviews in managerial psychology: Concepts and research for practice (pp. 1–53). John Wiley & Sons. (Reprinted from “International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 7, 1992, pp. 1–53)

Ackerman, P. L., & Kanfer, R. (1993). Integrating laboratory and field study for improving selection: Development of a battery for predicting air traffic controller success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(3), 413–432. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.3.413

Corno, L., & Kanfer, R. (1993). The role of volition in learning and performance. Review of Research in Education, 19(1), 301-341. https://doi.org/10.2307/1167345 

Ackerman, P. L. (1992). Predicting individual differences in complex skill acquisition: Dynamics of ability determinants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(5), 598–614. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.77.5.598

Goff, M., & Ackerman, P. L. (1992). Personality-intelligence relations: Assessment of typical intellectual engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(4), 537–552. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.84.4.537

Kanfer, R., & Kanfer, F.H. (1991). Goals and self-regulation: Applications of theory to work settings. In M.L. Maehr & P.R Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement (Vol.7, pp 287-326). JAI Press.

Ackerman, P. L. (1990). A correlational analysis of skill specificity: Learning, abilities, and individual differences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16(5), 883–901. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.16.5.883

Lind, E. A., Kanfer, R., & Earley, P. C. (1990). Voice, control, and procedural justice: Instrumental and noninstrumental concerns in fairness judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(5), 952–959. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.5.952

Kanfer, R. (1990). Motivation theory and industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 75–170). Consulting Psychologists Press.

Kanfer, R. (1990). Motivation and individual differences in learning: An integration of developmental, differential and cognitive perspectives. Learning and Individual Differences, 2(2), 221–239. https://doi.org/10.1016/1041-6080(90)90023-A

Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P. L. (1989). Motivation and cognitive abilities: An integrative/aptitude-treatment interaction approach to skill acquisition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(4), 657–690. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.74.4.657

Ackerman, P. L. (1988). Determinants of individual differences during skill acquisition: Cognitive abilities and information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117(3), 288–318. https://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.117.3.288

Ackerman, P. L. (1987). Individual differences in skill learning: An integration of psychometric and information processing perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 102(1), 3–27. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.102.1.3

Kanfer, R. (1987). Task-specific motivation: An integrative approach to issues of measurement, mechanisms, processes, and determinants. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 5(2), 237-264. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1987.5.2.237 

Ackerman, P. L. (1986). Individual differences in information processing: An investigation of intellectual abilities and task performance during practice. Intelligence, 10(2), 101–139. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896(86)90010-3

Earley, P. C., & Kanfer, R. (1985). The influence of component participation and role models on goal acceptance, goal satisfaction, and performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 36(3), 378–390. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(85)90006-8

Kanfer, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1985). Individual differences in successful job searches following lay-off. Personnel Psychology, 38(4), 835–847. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1985.tb00569.x

Drasgow, F., & Kanfer, R. (1985). Equivalence of psychological measurement in heterogeneous populations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(4), 662–680. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.70.4.662Kanfer, R., & Zeiss, A. M. (1983). Depression, interpersonal standard setting, and judgments of self-efficacy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92(3), 319–329. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.92.3.319