Recent Publications

van Woerkom, M., Kooij, D., & Kanfer, R. (in press). Growth motives and learning behaviors among older workers: Toward a more comprehensive assessment. Human Resource Development Review. 

Ackerman, P. L. (2023). Intelligence … moving beyond the lowest common denominator. American Psychologist, 78(3), 283–297.

Ackerman, P. L. (2023). Knowledge and intelligence: Reply to Oswald et al. (2023) and Sternberg (2023). American Psychologist, 78(3), 303–304.

Larson, L. E., Harris-Watson, A., Carter, D., Asencio, R., DeChurch, L., Kanfer, R., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2023). Staying apart to work better together: Team structure in cross-functional teams. Academy of Management Discoveries. 

Ackerman, P. L. (2022). Intelligence process vs. content and academic performance: A trip through a house of mirrors. Journal of Intelligence, 10(4), 128. 

Beier, M. E., Kanfer, R., Kooij, D. T., & Truxillo, D. M. (2022). What’s age got to do with it? A Primer and review of the Workplace Aging Literature. Personnel Psychology, 75(4), 779–804. 

Kooij, D. T., & Kanfer, R. (2022). Age and Job Crafting: How and Why do Employees of Different Ages Craft Their Job?. In H. Zacher & C. W. Rudolph (Eds.), Age and Work: Advances in Theory, Methods, and Practice (pp. 241-258). Routledge.

Tidler, Z. R., Tatel, C. E., & Ackerman, P. L. (2022, September). The Internet and Manuals: A Use-Oriented Study of the Acquisition of Novel Procedural Knowledge. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 66, No. 1, pp. 1834-1838). SAGE Publications. 

Tatel, C. E., Lyndgaard, S. F., Kanfer, R., & Melkers, J. E. (2022). Learning while working: Course enrollment behavior as a macro-level indicator of learning management among adult learners. Journal of Learning Analytics, 9(3), 104-124. 

Tatel, C. E., Tidler, Z. R., & Ackerman, P. L. (2022). Process differences as a function of test modifications: Construct validity of Raven’s advanced progressive matrices under standard, abbreviated and/or speeded conditions–A meta-analysis. Intelligence, 90, 101604. 

Lyndgaard, S. F., Tidler, Z. R., Provine, L., & Varma, S. (2022). Catastrophic interference in neural network models is mitigated when the training data reflect a power-law environmental structure. In J. Culbertson, A. Perfors, H. Rabagliati & V. Ramenzoni (Eds.), Proceedings of the 44th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (pp. 2634 – 2641). Toronto, CA: Cognitive Science Society.

Lyndgaard, S. F., Tatel, C. E., Kanfer, R., Melkers, J. E., & Sabree, J. C. (2022). Hidden costs: COVID-19’s disproportionate impact on underrepresented groups in graduate computing education. Computer-Based Learning in Context, 4(1), 16-37. 

van Hooft, E. A., Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D., Wanberg, C. R., Kanfer, R., & Basbug, G. (2021). Job search and employment success: A quantitative review and future research agenda. Journal of Applied Psychology, 106(5), 674–713. 

Ackerman, P. L. (2021).  A long ‘intellectual’ journey.  In D. Dai & R. J. Sternberg (Eds).  Scientific inquiry into human potential: Historical and contemporary perspective across disciplines (pp. 16-28).  Routledge..

Ackerman, P. L. (2021).  Abilities & skills:  assessing humans and artificial intelligence/robotics systems.  In AI and the Future of Skills, Volume 1: Capabilities and assessments, Educational Research and Innovation (pp. 150-159). OECD Publishing. 

Ackerman, P. L. (2021). Commentary: The future of college admissions tests. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 40(4), 38–40.

Ackerman, P. L. (2021).  Review of Beta-4.  In J. F. Carlson, K. F. Geisinger, & J. L. Jonson (Eds.) The twenty-first mental measurements yearbook (91-93).  Buros Center for Testing, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Ackerman, P. L. (2021).  Review of NIH Toolbox-Motor Domain.  In J. F. Carlson, K. F. Geisinger, & J. L. Jonson (Eds.) The twenty-first mental measurements yearbook (481-483).  Buros Center for Testing, The University of Nebraska-Lincoln.

Ackerman, P. L., & Hambrick, D. Z. (2020). A primer on assessing intelligence in laboratory studies. Intelligence, 80, Article 101440.

Ackerman, P. L. (2020). Intelligence and expertise. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence (2nd Edition, pp. 1159-1176). Cambridge University Press.

Ackerman, P. L., Tatel, C. E., & Lyndgaard, S. F. (2020). Subjective (dis)utility of effort: Mentally and physically demanding tasks. Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications, 5, Article 26.

Kanfer, R., Lyndgaard, S. F., & Tatel, C. E, (2020). For whom the pandemic tolls: A person-centric analysis of older workers. Work, Aging, and Retirement, 6(4), 238-241. 

Lim, L., Kanfer, R., Stroebel, R. J., & Zimring, C. M. (2020). The representational function of clinic design: Staff and patient perceptions of teamwork. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 14(2), 254–270. 

Lim, L., Kanfer, R., Stroebel, R. J., & Zimring, C. M. (2020). Beyond co-location: Visual connections of staff workstations and staff communication in Primary Care Clinics. Environment and Behavior, 54(1), 3–35. 

Fletcher, K. A., Kanfer, R., & Tatel, C. (2020). Workplace emotions and motivation: Toward a unified approach. In L. Yang, R. Cropanzano, C. S. Daus, & V. Martínez-Tur (Eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Workplace Affect (pp. 52-64). Cambridge University Press.

Kim, S., Irizarry, J., & Kanfer, R. (2020). Multilevel goal model for decision-making in UAS visual inspections in construction and infrastructure projects. Journal of Management in Engineering, 36(4), 04020036. 

Lim, L., Kanfer, R., Stroebel, R. J., & Zimring, C. M. (2020). Backstage staff communication: The effects of different levels of visual exposure to patients. HERD: Health Environments Research & Design Journal, 13(3), 54-69. 

Ackerman, P. L., & Kanfer, R. (2020). Work in the 21st century: New directions for aging and adult development. American Psychologist, 75(4), 486–498.

Larson, L. E., Harris, A. M., Asencio, R., Carter, D. R., DeChurch, L. A., Kanfer, R., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2020). Cross-disciplinary team design, communication overload, and innovation. In Academy of Management Proceedings (Vol. 2020, No. 1, p. 21054). Academy of Management. 

Kanfer, R., & Fletcher, K. A. (2020). Work motivation and employment goals in later adulthood. In S. Czaja, J. Sharit, & J. James (Eds.), Current and emerging trends in aging and work (pp. 219-241). Springer, Cham. 

Calderwood, C., & Ackerman, P. L. (2019). Modeling intraindividual variation in unsafe driving in a naturalistic commuting environment. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 24(4), 423–437.

Kanfer, R., & Blivin, J. (2019). Prospects and pitfalls in building the future workforce. In F. Oswald, T. S. Behrend, & L. Foster (Eds.), Workforce Readiness and the Future of Work (pp. 251-259). Routledge.

Carter, D. R., Asencio, R., Trainer, H. M., DeChurch, L. A., Kanfer, R., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2019). Best Practices for Researchers Working in Multiteam Systems. In K. Hall, A. Vogel, & R. Croyle (Eds.), Strategies for Team Science Success: Handbook of Evidence-Based Principles for Cross-Disciplinary Science and Practical Lessons Learned from Health Researchers (pp. 391-400). Springer International Publishing. 

Kooij, D. T. A. M., & Kanfer, R. (2019). Lifespan perspectives on work motivation. In B. B. Baltes, C. W. Rudolph, & H. Zacher (Eds.), Work across the lifespan (pp. 475–493). Elsevier Academic Press.

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). The search for personality-intelligence relations: methodological and conceptual issues. Journal of Intelligence, 6(2), 1-12. 

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). Mind-personality relations: Comment on Demetriou et al. (2018). Journal of Intelligence, 6(52), 1-2. 

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). Intelligence as potentiality and actuality. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), The Nature of Human Intelligence (pp. 1-14). Cambridge University Press. 

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). Intelligence‑as‑process, personality, interests, and intelligence‑as‑knowledge: A framework for adult intellectual development. In D. P. Flanagan & E. M. McDonough (Eds.), Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues (pp. 225–241). The Guilford Press.

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). Aptitude Tests. In B. B. Frey (Ed.). SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation (pp. 111-114).  Sage. (This is an adapted version of Ackerman, 2007.)

Ackerman, P. L. (2018). Expertise: Individual differences, human abilities, and nonability traits. In S. I. Pfeiffer, E. Shaunessy-Dedrick, & M. Foley-Nicpon (Eds.), APA handbook of giftedness and talent (pp. 259–272). American Psychological Association.

Ackerman, P. L., & Beier, M. E. (2018). Methods for studying the structure of expertise: Psychometric approaches. In K. A. Ericsson, R. R. Hoffman, A. Kozbelt, & A. M. Williams (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of expertise and expert performance (pp. 213–232). Cambridge University Press.

Ackerman, P. L., & Lakin, J. M. (2018). Expertise and individual differences. In S. Pfeiffer (Ed.) Handbook of Giftedness in Children: Psycho-Educational Theory, Research and Best Practices (pp. 65-80). Springer. 

Beier, M. E., LoPilato, A. C., & Kanfer, R. (2018). Successful motivational aging at work: Antecedents and retirement-related outcomes. Work, Aging and Retirement, 4(2), 213-224. 

Kanfer, R., & Bufton, G. M. (2018). Job loss and job search: A social-cognitive and self-regulation perspective. In U. Klehe, & E. van Hooft (Eds.) The Oxford handbook of job loss and job search (pp. 143-158). Oxford University Press. 

Kooij, D. T. A. M., Kanfer, R., Betts, M., & Rudolph, C. W. (2018). Future time perspective: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 103(8), 867–893.

Ackerman, P. L. (2017). Adult intelligence: The construct and the criterion problem. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 12(6), 987–998.

Heckhausen, J., Shane, J., & Kanfer, R. (2017). Competence and motivation at work throughout adulthood: Making the most of changing capacities and opportunities. In A. J. Elliot, C. S. Dweck, & D. S. Yeager (Eds.), Handbook of competence and motivation: Theory and application (pp. 449–470). The Guilford Press.

Kanfer, R., Frese, M., & Johnson, R. E. (2017). Motivation related to work: A century of progress. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 338–355.

Selected Books

Facing the Challenges of a Multi-Age Workforce: A Use-Inspired Approach

Facing the Challenges of a Multi-Age Workforce examines the shifting economic, cultural, and technological trends in the modern workplace that are taking place as a result of the aging global workforce. Taking an international perspective, contributors address workforce aging issues around the world, allowing for productive cross-cultural comparisons. Chapters adopt a use-inspired approach, with contributors proposing solutions to real problems faced by organizations, including global teamwork, unemployed youth, job obsolescence and over-qualification, heavy emotional labor and physically demanding jobs, and cross-age perceptions and communication. Additional commentaries from sociologists, gerontologists, economists, and scholars of labor and government round out the volume and demonstrate the interdisciplinary nature of this important topic.

Citation: Kanfer, R. (2015).  Employment Transitions in Late Adulthood.  In Finkelstein, L, Truxillo, D, Fraccaroli, F., & Kanfer, R. (Eds.), Facing the challenges of a multi-age workforce: A use-inspired approach (pp. 339-343).  New York: Psychology Press.

Learning and Individual Differences: Process, Trait, and Content Determinants

Researchers from the United States and seven other countries present leading-edge research and theory concerning the topic of learning and individual differences, which continues to be a vibrant area for multidisciplinary investigation. Developments in several areas, including cognitive, experimental, instructional, quantitative methodology, and differential psychology provide key insights for understanding both the characteristics of the learner and the characteristics of the learning situation. Of particular value is new research on information processing, ability traits, and knowledge as they pertain to adult learning and individual differences.

Citation: Ackerman, P.L., Kyllonen, P.C., Roberts, R.D. (Eds). (1999). Learning and individual differences: Process, trait, and content determinants. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Additional Selected Publications

Ackerman, P. L. (2016). Process overlap and g do not adequately account for a general factor of intelligence. Psychological Inquiry, 27(3), 178–180.

Ackerman, P. L., & Ellingsen, V. J. (2016). Speed and accuracy indicators of test performance under different instructional conditions: Intelligence correlates. Intelligence, 56, 1–9.

Calderwood, C., & Ackerman, P. L. (2016). The relative salience of daily and enduring influences on off-job reactions to work stress. Stress and Health: Journal of the International Society for the Investigation of Stress, 32(5), 587–596.

Ellingsen, V. J, & Ackerman, P. L. (2016). Cross-sectional designs. In Encyclopedia of Adulthood and Aging (pp. 1-4). Wiley-Blackwell. 

Ellingsen, V. J, & Ackerman, P. L. (2016). Fluid-crystallized theory of intelligence. In Encyclopedia of Adulthood and Aging (pp. 1-5). Wiley-Blackwell. 

Jipp, M., & Ackerman, P. L. (2016).  The impact of higher levels of automation on performance and situation awareness:  A function of information-processing ability and working-memory capacity.  Journal of Cognitive Engineering and Decision Making, 10(2), 138-166.

Kanfer, R., & Chen, G. (2016). Motivation in organizational behavior: History, advances and prospects. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 136, 6–19.

Wanberg, C. R., Kanfer, R., Hamann, D. J., & Zhang, Z. (2016). Age and reemployment success after job loss: An integrative model and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 142(4), 400–426.

Kooij, D. T. A. M., Tims, M., & Kanfer, R. (2015). Successful aging at work: The role of job crafting. In P. M. Bal, D. T. A. M. Kooij, & D. M. Rousseau (Eds.), Aging workers and the employee-employer relationship (pp. 145–161). Springer International Publishing.

Ackerman, P. L. (2014). Facts are stubborn things. Intelligence, 45, 104–106.

Ackerman, P. L. (2014). Nonsense, common sense, and science of expert performance: Talent and individual differences. Intelligence, 45, 6–17.

Kooij, D. T. A. M., Bal, P. M., & Kanfer, R. (2014). Future time perspective and promotion focus as determinants of intraindividual change in work motivation. Psychology and Aging, 29(2), 319–328.

Ackerman, P. L., Kanfer, R., & Beier, M. E. (2013). Trait complex, cognitive ability, and domain knowledge predictors of baccalaureate success, STEM persistence, and gender differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 911–927.

Kanfer, R., Beier, M. E., & Ackerman, P. L. (2013). Goals and motivation related to work in later adulthood: An organizing framework. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 22(3), 253–264.

von Stumm, S., & Ackerman, P. L. (2013). Investment and intellect: A review and meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 139(4), 841–869.

Kanfer, R. (2012). Work motivation: Theory, practice, and future directions. In S. W. J. Kozlowski (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of organizational psychology, Vol. 1, pp. 455–495). Oxford University Press.

Toker, Y., & Ackerman, P. L. (2012). Utilizing occupational complexity levels in vocational interest assessments: Assessing interests for STEM areas. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 524–544.

Ackerman, P. L., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Furnham, A. (2011). Trait complexes and academic achievement: Old and new ways of examining personality in educational contexts. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81(1), 27–40.

Kooij, D. T. A. M., de Lange, A. H., Jansen, P. G. W., Kanfer, R., & Dikkers, J. S. E. (2011). Age and work-related motives: Results of a meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(2), 197–225.

von Stumm, S., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., & Ackerman, P. L. (2011). Re-visiting intelligence-personality associations: Vindicating intellectual investment. In T. Chamorro-Premuzic, S. von Stumm, & A. Furnham (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of individual differences (pp. 217–241). Wiley Blackwell.

Ackerman, P. L., & Kanfer, R. (2009). Test length and cognitive fatigue: An empirical examination of effects on performance and test-taker reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 15(2), 163–181.

Chen, G., Kanfer, R., DeShon, R. P., Mathieu, J. E., & Kozlowski, S. W.J. (2009). The motivating potential of teams: Test and extension of Chen and Kanfer’s (2006) cross-level model of motivation in teams. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 110(1), 45–55.

Ackerman, P. L. (2008). Knowledge and cognitive aging. In F. I. M. Craik & T. A. Salthouse (Eds.), The handbook of aging and cognition (pp. 445–489). Psychology Press.

Wegge, J., Roth, C., Neubach, B., Schmidt, K.-H., & Kanfer, R. (2008). Age and gender diversity as determinants of performance and health in a public organization: The role of task complexity and group size. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(6), 1301–1313.

Kanfer, R., Chen, G., & Pritchard, R. D. (2008). The three C’s of work motivation: Content, context, and change. In R. Kanfer, G. Chen, & R. D. Pritchard (Eds.), Work motivation: Past, present, and future (pp. 1–16). Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

Ackerman, P. L., & Wolman, S. D. (2007). Determinants and validity of self-estimates of abilities and self-concept measures. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 13(2), 57–78.

Chen, G., Kirkman, B. L., Kanfer, R., Allen, D., & Rosen, B. (2007). A multilevel study of leadership, empowerment, and performance in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(2), 331–346.

Chen, G., & Kanfer, R. (2006). Toward a systems theory of motivated behavior in work teams. Research in Organizational Behavior, 27, 223-267. 

Ackerman, P. L., Beier, M. E., & Boyle, M. O. (2005). Working memory and intelligence: The same or different constructs? Psychological Bulletin, 131(1), 30–60.

Beier, M. E., & Ackerman, P. L. (2005). Age, ability, and the role of prior knowledge on the acquisition of new domain knowledge: Promising results in a real-world learning environment. Psychology and Aging, 20(2), 341–355.

Morris, M. G., Venkatesh, V., & Ackerman, P. L. (2005). Gender and age differences in employee decisions about new technology: An extension to the theory of planned behavior. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 52(1), 69-84. 

Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P. L. (2004). Aging, Adult Development, and Work Motivation. The Academy of Management Review, 29(3), 440–458.

Franco, L. M., Bennett, S., Kanfer, R., & Stubblebine, P. (2004). Determinants and consequences of health worker motivation in hospitals in Jordan and Georgia. Social Science & Medicine, 58(2), 343–355.

Beier, M. E., & Ackerman, P. L. (2003). Determinants of health knowledge: An investigation of age, gender, abilities, personality, and interests. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 439–448.

Ackerman, P. L., Beier, M. E., & Bowen, K. R. (2002). What we really know about our abilities and our knowledge. Personality and Individual Differences, 33(4), 587–605.

Ackerman, P. L., Beier, M. E., & Boyle, M. D. (2002). Individual differences in working memory within a nomological network of cognitive and perceptual speed abilities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 131(4), 567–589.

Franco, L. M., Bennett, S., & Kanfer, R. (2002). Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: A conceptual framework. Social Science & Medicine, 54(8), 1255–1266.

Lord, R. G., & Kanfer, R. (2002). Emotions and organizational behavior. In R.G. Lord, R.J. Klimoski and R. Kanfer (Eds.), Emotions in the workplace: Understanding the structure and role of emotions in organizational behavior (pp. 5-19). Jossey Bass.

Ackerman, P. L., Bowen, K. R., Beier, M. E., & Kanfer, R. (2001). Determinants of individual differences and gender differences in knowledge. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93(4), 797–825.

Kanfer, R., Wanberg, C. R., & Kantrowitz, T. M. (2001). Job search and employment: A personality–motivational analysis and meta-analytic review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 837–855.

Ackerman, P. L. (2000). Domain-specific knowledge as the “dark matter” of adult intelligence: Gf/Gc, personality and interest correlates. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 55(2), P69–P84.

Ackerman, P. L., & Cianciolo, A. T. (2000). Cognitive, perceptual-speed, and psychomotor determinants of individual differences during skill acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 6(4), 259–290.

Venkatesh, V., Morris, M. G., & Ackerman, P. L. (2000). A longitudinal field investigation of gender differences in individual technology adoption decision-making processes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 83(1), 33–60.

Wanberg, C. R., Kanfer, R., & Banas, J. T. (2000). Predictors and outcomes of networking intensity among unemployed job seekers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(4), 491–503.

Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P. L. (2000). Individual differences in work motivation: Further explorations of a trait framework. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 49(3), 470–482.

Heggestad, E. D., & Kanfer, R. (2000). Individual differences in trait motivation: Development of the Motivational Trait Questionnaire. International Journal of Educational Research, 33, 751–776.

Ackerman, P. L., & Rolfhus, E. L. (1999). The locus of adult intelligence: Knowledge, abilities, and nonability traits. Psychology and Aging, 14(2), 314–330.

Rolfhus, E. L., & Ackerman, P. L. (1999). Assessing individual differences in knowledge: Knowledge, intelligence, and related traits. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(3), 511–526.

Wanberg, C. R., Kanfer, R., & Rotundo, M. (1999). Unemployed individuals: Motives, job-search competencies, and job-search constraints as predictors of job seeking and reemployment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84(6), 897–910.

Ackerman, P. L., & Heggestad, E. D. (1997). Intelligence, personality, and interests: Evidence for overlapping traits. Psychological Bulletin, 121(2), 219–245.

Kanfer, R., & Heggestad, E. D. (1997). Motivational traits and skills: A person-centered approach to work motivation. Research In Organizational Behavior, 19, 1-56.

Ackerman, P. L. (1996). A theory of adult intellectual development: Process, personality, interests, and knowledge. Intelligence, 22(2), 227–257.

Schneider, R. J., Ackerman, P. L., & Kanfer, R. (1996). To “act wisely in human relations”: Exploring the dimensions of social competence. Personality and Individual Differences, 21(4), 469–481.

Kanfer, R., Ackerman, P. L., & Heggestad, E. D. (1996). Motivational skills & self-regulation for learning: A trait perspective. Learning and Individual Differences, 8(3), 185-209. 

Ackerman, P. L., Kanfer, R., & Goff, M. (1995). Cognitive and noncognitive determinants and consequences of complex skill acquisition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 1(4), 270–304.

Kanfer, R., Ackerman, P. L., Murtha, T. C., Dugdale, B., & Nelson, L. (1994). Goal setting, conditions of practice, and task performance: A resource allocation perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79(6), 826–835.

Kanfer, R. (1994). Work motivation: New directions in theory and research. In C. L. Cooper & I. T. Robertson (Eds.), Key reviews in managerial psychology: Concepts and research for practice (pp. 1–53). John Wiley & Sons. (Reprinted from “International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 7, 1992, pp. 1–53)

Ackerman, P. L., & Kanfer, R. (1993). Integrating laboratory and field study for improving selection: Development of a battery for predicting air traffic controller success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(3), 413–432.

Corno, L., & Kanfer, R. (1993). The role of volition in learning and performance. Review of Research in Education, 19(1), 301-341. 

Ackerman, P. L. (1992). Predicting individual differences in complex skill acquisition: Dynamics of ability determinants. Journal of Applied Psychology, 77(5), 598–614.

Goff, M., & Ackerman, P. L. (1992). Personality-intelligence relations: Assessment of typical intellectual engagement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(4), 537–552.

Kanfer, R., & Kanfer, F.H. (1991). Goals and self-regulation: Applications of theory to work settings. In M.L. Maehr & P.R Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement (Vol.7, pp 287-326). JAI Press.

Ackerman, P. L. (1990). A correlational analysis of skill specificity: Learning, abilities, and individual differences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16(5), 883–901.

Lind, E. A., Kanfer, R., & Earley, P. C. (1990). Voice, control, and procedural justice: Instrumental and noninstrumental concerns in fairness judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59(5), 952–959.

Kanfer, R. (1990). Motivation theory and industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 75–170). Consulting Psychologists Press.

Kanfer, R. (1990). Motivation and individual differences in learning: An integration of developmental, differential and cognitive perspectives. Learning and Individual Differences, 2(2), 221–239.

Kanfer, R., & Ackerman, P. L. (1989). Motivation and cognitive abilities: An integrative/aptitude-treatment interaction approach to skill acquisition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74(4), 657–690.

Ackerman, P. L. (1988). Determinants of individual differences during skill acquisition: Cognitive abilities and information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 117(3), 288–318.

Ackerman, P. L. (1987). Individual differences in skill learning: An integration of psychometric and information processing perspectives. Psychological Bulletin, 102(1), 3–27.

Kanfer, R. (1987). Task-specific motivation: An integrative approach to issues of measurement, mechanisms, processes, and determinants. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 5(2), 237-264. 

Ackerman, P. L. (1986). Individual differences in information processing: An investigation of intellectual abilities and task performance during practice. Intelligence, 10(2), 101–139.

Earley, P. C., & Kanfer, R. (1985). The influence of component participation and role models on goal acceptance, goal satisfaction, and performance. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 36(3), 378–390.

Kanfer, R., & Hulin, C. L. (1985). Individual differences in successful job searches following lay-off. Personnel Psychology, 38(4), 835–847.

Drasgow, F., & Kanfer, R. (1985). Equivalence of psychological measurement in heterogeneous populations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70(4), 662–680., R., & Zeiss, A. M. (1983). Depression, interpersonal standard setting, and judgments of self-efficacy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92(3), 319–329.